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十七大报告中英文对照-3

点击数:3987 发布时间:2008/3/31 22:25:36 发布者:stevezz007


深化政治体制改革,必须坚持正确政治方向,以保证人民当家作主为根本,以增强党和国家活力、调动人民积极性为目标,扩大社会主义民主,建设社会主义法治国家,发展社会主义政治文明。要坚持党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,提高党科学执政、民主执政、依法执政水平,保证党领导人民有效治理国家;坚持国家一切权力属于人民,从各个层次、各个领域扩大公民有序政治参与,最广泛地动员和组织人民依法管理国家事务和社会事务、管理经济和文化事业;坚持依法治国基本方略,树立社会主义法治理念,实现国家各项工作法治化,保障公民合法权益;坚持社会主义政治制度的特点和优势,推进社会主义民主政治制度化、规范化、程序化,为党和国家长治久安提供政治和法律制度保障。

In deepening political restructuring, we must keep to the correct political orientation. On the basis of ensuring the people's position as masters of the country, we will expand socialist democracy, build a socialist country under the rule of law and develop socialist political civilization to enhance the vitality of the Party and the state and arouse the initiative of the people. We must uphold the Party's role as the core of leadership in directing the overall situation and coordinating the efforts of all quarters, and improve its capacity for scientific, democratic and law-based governance to ensure that the Party leads the people in effectively governing the country. We must ensure that all power of the state belongs to the people, expand the citizens' orderly participation in political affairs at each level and in every field, and mobilize and organize the people as extensively as possible to manage state and social affairs as well as economic and cultural programs in accordance with the law. We must uphold the rule of law as a fundamental principle and adopt the socialist concept of law-based governance to ensure that all work of the state is based on the law and that the legitimate rights and interests of citizens are safeguarded. We must maintain the features and advantages of the socialist political system and define institutions, standards and procedures for socialist democracy to provide political and legal guarantees of lasting stability for the Party and the country.

(一)扩大人民民主,保证人民当家作主。人民当家作主是社会主义民主政治的本质和核心。要健全民主制度,丰富民主形式,拓宽民主渠道,依法实行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督,保障人民的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权。支持人民代表大会依法履行职能,善于使党的主张通过法定程序成为国家意志;保障人大代表依法行使职权,密切人大代表同人民的联系,建议逐步实行城乡按相同人口比例选举人大代表;加强人大常委会制度建设,优化组成人员知识结构和年龄结构。支持人民政协围绕团结和民主两大主题履行职能,推进政治协商、民主监督、参政议政制度建设;把政治协商纳入决策程序,完善民主监督机制,提高参政议政实效;加强政协自身建设,发挥协调关系、汇聚力量、建言献策、服务大局的重要作用。坚持各民族一律平等,保证民族自治地方依法行使自治权。推进决策科学化、民主化,完善决策信息和智力支持系统,增强决策透明度和公众参与度,制定与群众利益密切相关的法律法规和公共政策原则上要公开听取意见。加强公民意识教育,树立社会主义民主法制、自由平等、公平正义理念。支持工会、共青团、妇联等人民团体依照法律和各自章程开展工作,参与社会管理和公共服务,维护群众合法权益。

1. Expand people's democracy and ensure that they are masters of the country. The essence and core of socialist democracy are that the people are masters of the country. We need to improve institutions for democracy, diversify its forms and expand its channels, and we need to carry out democratic election, decision-making, administration and oversight in accordance with the law to guarantee the people's rights to be informed, to participate, to be heard, and to oversee. We must support people's congresses in performing their functions pursuant to law and effectively turn the Party's propositions into the will of the state through legal procedures. We must ensure that deputies to people's congresses exercise their functions and powers in accordance with the law and maintain close ties with the general public. We propose that both urban and rural areas gradually adapt the same ratio of deputies to the represented population in elections of deputies to people's congresses. We must strengthen the institutions of standing committees of people's congresses and improve their membership composition in terms of intellectual background and age. We will support the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) in performing its functions centered on the two major themes of unity and democracy and improve the system of political consultation, democratic oversight, and participation in the deliberation and administration of state affairs. We will incorporate political consultation in decision-making procedures, improve democratic oversight and ensure that the CPPCC participates in the deliberation and administration of state affairs more effectively. The CPPCC is encouraged to improve itself and play its important role in coordinating relations, pooling strengths, making proposals and serving the overall interests of the country. We must ensure equality among all ethnic groups and guarantee the right of ethnic autonomous areas to exercise autonomy pursuant to law. To ensure scientific and democratic decision-making, we will improve the information and intellectual support for it, increase its transparency and expand public participation in it. In principle, public hearings must be held for the formulation of laws, regulations and policies that bear closely on the interests of the public. We need to step up education about citizenship and establish socialist concepts of democracy, the rule of law, freedom, equality, equity and justice. We support trade unions, the Communist Youth League, women's federations and other people's organizations in functioning in accordance with the law and their respective charters, participating in social management and public services and helping protect the people's legitimate rights and interests.

 (二)发展基层民主,保障人民享有更多更切实的民主权利。人民依法直接行使民主权利,管理基层公共事务和公益事业,实行自我管理、自我服务、自我教育、自我监督,对干部实行民主监督,是人民当家作主最有效、最广泛的途径,必须作为发展社会主义民主政治的基础性工程重点推进。要健全基层党组织领导的充满活力的基层群众自治机制,扩大基层群众自治范围,完善民主管理制度,把城乡社区建设成为管理有序、服务完善、文明祥和的社会生活共同体。全心全意依靠工人阶级,完善以职工代表大会为基本形式的企事业单位民主管理制度,推进厂务公开,支持职工参与管理,维护职工合法权益。深化乡镇机构改革,加强基层政权建设,完善政务公开、村务公开等制度,实现政府行政管理与基层群众自治有效衔接和良性互动。发挥社会组织在扩大群众参与、反映群众诉求方面的积极作用,增强社会自治功能。

2. Develop primary-level democracy and ensure that the people enjoy democratic rights in a more extensive and practical way. The most effective and extensive way for the people to be masters of the country is that they directly exercise their democratic rights in accordance with the law to manage public affairs and public service programs at the primary level, practice self-management, self-service self-education and self-oversight, and exercise democratic oversight over cadres. Such practices must be emphasized and promoted as the groundwork for developing socialist democracy. We need to improve the dynamic mechanism of people's self-governance at the primary level under the leadership of primary Party organizations, expand the scope of self-governance, and improve the institution for democratic management, with a view to turning urban and rural neighborhoods into communities of social life that are well managed, supported by complete services, and filled with civility and harmony. We must rely wholeheartedly on the working class, improve the democratic management system in enterprises and public institutions with workers' conferences as its basic form and increase transparency in factory affairs to support workers' participation in management and to safeguard their legitimate rights and interests. We need to deepen institutional reforms at the town and township level to strengthen government authorities there and improve the systems for transparency in government and village affairs to bring about effective connection and beneficial interaction between government administration and primary-level self-governance. We also encourage social organizations to help expand the participation by the public and report on their petitions to improve the self-governance capability of society.

 (三)全面落实依法治国基本方略,加快建设社会主义法治国家。依法治国是社会主义民主政治的基本要求。要坚持科学立法、民主立法,完善中国特色社会主义法律体系。加强宪法和法律实施,坚持公民在法律面前一律平等,维护社会公平正义,维护社会主义法制的统一、尊严、权威。推进依法行政。深化司法体制改革,优化司法职权配置,规范司法行为,建设公正高效权威的社会主义司法制度,保证审判机关、检察机关依法独立公正地行使审判权、检察权。加强政法队伍建设,做到严格、公正、文明执法。深入开展法制宣传教育,弘扬法治精神,形成自觉学法守法用法的社会氛围。尊重和保障人权,依法保证全体社会成员平等参与、平等发展的权利。各级党组织和全体党员要自觉在宪法和法律范围内活动,带头维护宪法和法律的权威。

3. Comprehensively implement the rule of law as a fundamental principle and speed up the building of a socialist country under the rule of law. The rule of law constitutes the essential requirement of socialist democracy. We must persist in scientific and democratic legislation to improve the socialist law system with Chinese characteristics. We will strengthen the enforcement of the Constitution and laws, ensure that all citizens are equal before the law, and safeguard social equity and justice and the consistency, sanctity and authority of the socialist legal system. We need to carry out government administration in accordance with the law. We need to deepen the reform of the judiciary system, optimize the distribution of judicial functions and powers, standardize judicial practices, and build a fair, efficient and authoritative socialist judiciary system to ensure that courts and procuratorates exercise their respective powers independently and impartially in accordance with the law. We need to improve the overall quality of judicial, procuratorial and public security personnel to ensure that law enforcement is strict, impartial and civilized. We need to step up the education campaign to increase public awareness of law, and promote the spirit of the rule of law, creating a social environment in which people study, abide by and apply laws of their own accord. We must respect and safeguard human rights, and ensure the equal right to participation and development for all members of society in accordance with the law. Party organizations at all levels and all Party members must act under the Constitution and laws on their own initiative and take the lead in upholding the authority of the Constitution and laws.

(四)壮大爱国统一战线,团结一切可以团结的力量。促进政党关系、民族关系、宗教关系、阶层关系、海内外同胞关系的和谐,对于增进团结、凝聚力量具有不可替代的作用。要贯彻长期共存、互相监督、肝胆相照、荣辱与共的方针,加强同民主党派合作共事,支持民主党派和无党派人士更好履行参政议政、民主监督职能,选拔和推荐更多优秀党外干部担任领导职务。牢牢把握各民族共同团结奋斗、共同繁荣发展的主题,保障少数民族合法权益,巩固和发展平等团结协助和谐的社会主义民族关系。全面贯彻党的宗教工作基本方针,发挥宗教界人士和信教群众在促进经济社会发展中的积极作用。鼓励新的社会阶层人士积极投身中国特色社会主义建设。支持海外侨胞、归侨侨眷关心和参与祖国现代化建设与和平统一大业。

4. Expand the patriotic united front and unite with all forces that can be united. Promoting harmony in relations between political parties, between ethnic groups, between religions, between social strata, and between our compatriots at home and overseas plays an irreplaceable role in enhancing unity and pooling strengths. Acting on the principle of long-term coexistence, mutual oversight, sincere treatment of each other and the sharing of weal and woe, we will strengthen our cooperation with the democratic parties, support them and personages without party affiliation in better performing their functions of participation in the deliberation and administration of state affairs and democratic oversight, and select and recommend a greater number of outstanding non-CPC persons for leading positions.  Keeping in mind the objective of all ethnic groups working together for common prosperity and development, we must guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of ethnic minorities, and strengthen and develop socialist ethnic relations based on equality, solidarity, mutual assistance and harmony. We will fully implement the Party's basic principle for its work related to religious affairs and bring into play the positive role of religious personages and believers in promoting economic and social development. We encourage members of emerging social strata to take an active part in building socialism with Chinese characteristics. We support overseas Chinese nationals, returned overseas Chinese and their relatives in caring about and participating in the modernization drive and the great cause of peaceful reunification of the motherland.

(五)加快行政管理体制改革,建设服务型政府。行政管理体制改革是深化改革的重要环节。要抓紧制定行政管理体制改革总体方案,着力转变职能、理顺关系、优化结构、提高效能,形成权责一致、分工合理、决策科学、执行顺畅、监督有力的行政管理体制。健全政府职责体系,完善公共服务体系,推行电子政务,强化社会管理和公共服务。加快推进政企分开、政资分开、政事分开、政府与市场中介组织分开,规范行政行为,加强行政执法部门建设,减少和规范行政审批,减少政府对微观经济运行的干预。规范垂直管理部门和地方政府的关系。加大机构整合力度,探索实行职能有机统一的大部门体制,健全部门间协调配合机制。精简和规范各类议事协调机构及其办事机构,减少行政层次,降低行政成本,着力解决机构重叠、职责交叉、政出多门问题。统筹党委、政府和人大、政协机构设置,减少领导职数,严格控制编制。加快推进事业单位分类改革。

5. Accelerate the reform of the administrative system and build a service-oriented government. The administrative reform is an important part of the efforts to deepen China's overall reform. We must lose no time in working out a master plan for it, with the focus on changing functions, straightening out relations, optimizing the setup and raising efficiency, and bring about a system which matches powers with responsibilities, divides work in a rational way, fosters scientific decision-making, and ensures smooth enforcement and effective oversight. We need to improve the government responsibility system and the public service system, promote e-government and strengthen social management and public services. We will accelerate the separation of the functions of the government from those of enterprises, state assets management authorities, public institutions and market-based intermediaries, standardize administrative practices, strengthen administrative law-enforcement agencies, reduce the number of matters requiring administrative examination and approval and standardize such procedures, and reduce government intervention in microeconomic operations. We will standardize the relationship between local departments directly under central government organs and local governments. We will step up our efforts to streamline government organs, explore ways to establish greater departments with integrated functions, and improve the mechanism of coordination and collaboration between government departments. We will downsize and standardize various organs for deliberation and coordination and their working offices, cut down levels of administration, minimize its costs, and address the problems of overlapping organizations and functions and conflicting policies from different departments. We will give overall consideration to the setup of Party committees and governments as well as that of people's congresses and CPPCC committees, reduce the number of their leading positions and strictly control their staffing. We will step up the restructuring of different categories of public institutions.

 (六)完善制约和监督机制,保证人民赋予的权力始终用来为人民谋利益。确保权力正确行使,必须让权力在阳光下运行。要坚持用制度管权、管事、管人,建立健全决策权、执行权、监督权既相互制约又相互协调的权力结构和运行机制。健全组织法制和程序规则,保证国家机关按照法定权限和程序行使权力、履行职责。完善各类公开办事制度,提高政府工作透明度和公信力。重点加强对领导干部特别是主要领导干部、人财物管理使用、关键岗位的监督,健全质询、问责、经济责任审计、引咎辞职、罢免等制度。落实党内监督条例,加强民主监督,发挥好舆论监督作用,增强监督合力和实效。

6. Improve the mechanism of restraint and oversight and ensure that power entrusted by the people is always exercised in their interests. Power must be exercised in the sunshine to ensure that it is exercised correctly.  We must have institutions to govern power, work and personnel, and establish a sound structure of power and a mechanism for its operation in which decision-making, enforcement and oversight powers check each other and function in coordination. We will improve organic laws and rules of procedure to ensure that state organs exercise their powers and perform their functions and responsibilities within their statutory jurisdiction and in accordance with legal procedures. We will improve the open administrative system in various areas and increase transparency in government work, thus enhancing the people's trust in the government. We will focus on tightening oversight over leading cadres and especially principal ones, over the management and use of human, financial and material resources, and over key positions.  We will improve the systems of inquiries, accountability, economic responsibility auditing, resignation and recall. We will implement the intra-Party oversight regulations, strengthen democratic oversight and give scope to the oversight role of public opinion, pooling forces of oversight from all sides to make it more effective.

 社会主义愈发展,民主也愈发展。在发展中国特色社会主义的历史进程中,中国共产党人和中国人民一定能够不断发展具有强大生命力的社会主义民主政治。

Democracy will keep developing along with the progress of socialism. In the historical course of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, Chinese Communists and the Chinese people will surely advance socialist democracy that is full of vitality.

七、推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣

VII. Promoting Vigorous Development and Prosperity of Socialist Culture

 当今时代,文化越来越成为民族凝聚力和创造力的重要源泉、越来越成为综合国力竞争的重要因素,丰富精神文化生活越来越成为我国人民的热切愿望。要坚持社会主义先进文化前进方向,兴起社会主义文化建设新高潮,激发全民族文化创造活力,提高国家文化软实力,使人民基本文化权益得到更好保障,使社会文化生活更加丰富多彩,使人民精神风貌更加昂扬向上。

In the present era, culture has become a more and more important source of national cohesion and creativity and a factor of growing significance in the competition in overall national strength, and the Chinese people have an increasingly ardent desire for a richer cultural life. We must keep to the orientation of advanced socialist culture, bring about a new upsurge in socialist cultural development, stimulate the cultural creativity of the whole nation, and enhance culture as part of the soft power of our country to better guarantee the people's basic cultural rights and interests, enrich the cultural life in Chinese society and inspire the enthusiasm of the people for progress.

 (一)建设社会主义核心价值体系,增强社会主义意识形态的吸引力和凝聚力。社会主义核心价值体系是社会主义意识形态的本质体现。要巩固马克思主义指导地位,坚持不懈地用马克思主义中国化最新成果武装全党、教育人民,用中国特色社会主义共同理想凝聚力量,用以爱国主义为核心的民族精神和以改革创新为核心的时代精神鼓舞斗志,用社会主义荣辱观引领风尚,巩固全党全国各族人民团结奋斗的共同思想基础。大力推进理论创新,不断赋予当代中国马克思主义鲜明的实践特色、民族特色、时代特色。开展中国特色社会主义理论体系宣传普及活动,推动当代中国马克思主义大众化。推进马克思主义理论研究和建设工程,深入回答重大理论和实际问题,培养造就一批马克思主义理论家特别是中青年理论家。切实把社会主义核心价值体系融入国民教育和精神文明建设全过程,转化为人民的自觉追求。积极探索用社会主义核心价值体系引领社会思潮的有效途径,主动做好意识形态工作,既尊重差异、包容多样,又有力抵制各种错误和腐朽思想的影响。繁荣发展哲学社会科学,推进学科体系、学术观点、科研方法创新,鼓励哲学社会科学界为党和人民事业发挥思想库作用,推动我国哲学社会科学优秀成果和优秀人才走向世界。

1. Build up the system of socialist core values and make socialist ideology more attractive and cohesive. The system of socialist core values represents the essence of socialist ideology. We must consolidate the guiding position of Marxism, persistently arm the whole Party with and educate the people in the latest achievements in adapting Marxism to Chinese conditions, rally the people with our common ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, inspire the people with patriotism-centered national spirit and with the spirit of the times centering on reform and innovation, guide social ethos with the socialist maxims of honor and disgrace, and solidify the common ideological basis of the joint endeavor of the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups. We will make every effort to carry out theoretical innovation and give Marxism of contemporary China distinct characters of practice, of the Chinese nation and of the times.  We will publicize the theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and take Marxism of contemporary China to the general public. We will carry on the Project to Study and Develop Marxist Theory to provide in-depth answers to major theoretical and practical questions and to bring up a group of Marxist theoreticians, especially young and middle-aged ones. We will incorporate the socialist core values into all stages of national education and the entire process of cultural and ethical progress to make them the targets pursued by the people of their own accord. We will explore effective ways of letting the system of socialist core values guide trends of thought and take the initiative in ideological work, respecting divergence and allowing diversity while effectively resisting the influence of erroneous and decadent ideas.  We will develop philosophy and social sciences, promoting innovation in academic disciplines, academic viewpoints and research methods. We encourage people working in these fields to serve as a think tank for the cause of the Party and the people, and we will introduce related outstanding achievements and distinguished scholars to the world arena.

 (二)建设和谐文化,培育文明风尚。和谐文化是全体人民团结进步的重要精神支撑。要积极发展新闻出版、广播影视、文学艺术事业,坚持正确导向,弘扬社会正气。重视城乡、区域文化协调发展,着力丰富农村、偏远地区、进城务工人员的精神文化生活。加强网络文化建设和管理,营造良好网络环境。大力弘扬爱国主义、集体主义、社会主义思想,以增强诚信意识为重点,加强社会公德、职业道德、家庭美德、个人品德建设,发挥道德模范榜样作用,引导人民自觉履行法定义务、社会责任、家庭责任。加强和改进思想政治工作,注重人文关怀和心理疏导,用正确方式处理人际关系。动员社会各方面共同做好青少年思想道德教育工作,为青少年健康成长创造良好社会环境。深入开展群众性精神文明创建活动,完善社会志愿服务体系,形成男女平等、尊老爱幼、互爱互助、见义勇为的社会风尚。弘扬科学精神,普及科学知识。广泛开展全民健身运动。办好二00八年奥运会、残奥会和二00年世博会。

2. Foster a culture of harmony and cultivate civilized practices.  A culture of harmony provides important intellectual support for the unity and progress of all our people. We must step up the development of the press, publishing, radio, film, television, literature and art, give correct guidance to the public and foster healthy social trends. We must balance cultural development between urban and rural areas and among different regions, focusing on enriching the cultural life in rural and remote areas and of rural migrant workers in cities. We will strengthen efforts to develop and manage Internet culture and foster a good cyber environment. We will promote patriotism, collectivism and socialist ideology. With the emphasis on enhancing people's awareness of integrity, we will promote social ethics, professional codes of conduct, family virtues and individual morality, let paragons of virtue serve as role models for society, and guide people in conscientiously carrying out legal obligations and social and family responsibilities. We will strengthen and improve our ideological and political work, paying attention to compassionate care and psychological counseling and correctly handling interpersonal relations. We will mobilize all sectors of society in doing a good job of ideological and moral education among young people and create a favorable environment for their healthy development.  We will carry out intensive activities to promote cultural and ethical progress among the public, improve the system of voluntary public services, and encourage practices such as upholding gender equality, respecting the elderly, caring for the young, showing concern for and helping each other and corning to the rescue of others even at risk to oneself.  We will promote the scientific spirit and spread scientific knowledge.  We will launch extensive public fitness programs and ensure the success of the 2008 Olympic Games and the Paralympics in Beijing and the 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai.

 (三)弘扬中华文化,建设中华民族共有精神家园。中华文化是中华民族生生不息、团结奋进的不竭动力。要全面认识祖国传统文化,取其精华,去其糟粕,使之于当代社会相适应、与现代文明相协调,保持民族性,体现时代性。加强中华优秀文化传统教育,运用现代科技手段开发利用民族文化丰富资源。加强对各民族文化的挖掘和保护,重视文物和非物质文化遗产保护,做好文化典籍整理工作。加强对外文化交流,吸收各国优秀文明成果,增强中华文化国际影响力。

3. Promote Chinese culture and build the common spiritual home for the Chinese nation.  Chinese culture has been an unfailing driving force for the Chinese nation to keep its unity and make progress from generation to generation. We must have a comprehensive understanding of traditional Chinese culture, keep its essence and discard its dross to enable it to fit in with present-day society, stay in harmony with modern civilization, keep its national character and reflect changes of the times.  We will further publicize the fine traditions of Chinese culture and use modern means of science and technology to exploit the rich resources of our national culture. We will explore and better protect the cultures of all ethnic groups, attach great importance to the protection of cultural relics and intangible cultural heritage and do a good job collating ancient books and records. We will also strengthen international cultural exchanges to draw on the fine achievements of foreign cultures and enhance the influence of Chinese culture worldwide.

 (四)推进文化创新,增强文化发展活力。在时代的高起点上推动文化内容形式、体制机制、传播手段创新,解放和发展文化生产力,是繁荣文化的必由之路。要坚持为人民服务、为社会主义服务的方向和百花齐放、百家争鸣的方针,贴近实际、贴近生活、贴近群众,始终把社会效益放在首位,做到经济效益与社会效益相统一。创作更多反映人民主体地位和现实生活、群众喜闻乐见的优秀精神文化产品。深化文化体制改革,完善扶持公益性文化事业、发展文化产业、鼓励文化创新的政策,营造有利于出精品、出人才、出效益的环境。坚持把发展公益性文化事业作为保障人民基本文化权益的主要途径,加大投入力度,加强社区和乡村文化设施建设;大力发展文化产业,实施重大文化产业项目带动战略,加快文化产业基地和区域性特色文化产业群建设,培育文化产业骨干企业和战略投资者,繁荣文化市场,增强国际竞争力。运用高新技术创新文化生活方式,培育新的文化业态,加快构建传输快捷、覆盖广泛的文化传播体系。设立国家荣誉制度,表彰有杰出贡献的文化工作者。

4. Stimulate cultural innovation and enhance the vitality of cultural development.  The only way to invigorate culture is to promote innovation in its content and form, its structure and mechanism, and its means of dissemination from the high staring point of our times and release and develop its productive forces.  We must keep to the orientation of serving the people and socialism, uphold the principle of letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend, and maintain close contact with reality, life and the public.  We must always give top priority to social benefits and try to ensure both good economic returns and social benefits.  We must create more excellent, popular works that reflect the people's principal position in the country and their real life.  We must deepen cultural restructuring and improve the policies for supposing nonprofit cultural programs, developing the cultural industry and encouraging cultural innovation, so as to create favorable conditions for producing fine works, outstanding personnel and good results. We must continue to develop nonprofit cultural programs as the main approach to ensuring the basic cultural tights and interests of the people, increase spending on such programs, and build more cultural facilities in urban-communities and rural areas.  We must vigorously develop the cultural industry, launch major projects to lead the industry as a whole, speed up development of cultural industry bases and clusters of cultural industries with regional features, nurture key enterprises and strategic investors, create a thriving cultural market and enhance the industry's international competitiveness. We will use new and high technology to create new ways of producing cultural works, foster new forms of operation in the cultural industry and accelerate the establishment of a dissemination system featuring fast communication and wide coverage.  We will establish a national system of honors for outstanding cultural workers.

中华民族伟大复兴必然伴随中华文化繁荣兴盛。要充分发挥人民在文化建设中的主体作用,调动广大文化工作者的积极性,更加自觉、更加主动地推进文化大发展大繁荣,在中国特色社会主义的伟大实践中进行文化创造,让人民共享文化发展成果。

The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation will definitely be accompanied by the thriving of Chinese culture.  We will give full scope to the principal position of the people in cultural development, arouse the enthusiasm of cultural workers, promote vigorous development and prosperity of culture more conscientiously and actively, and create cultural works in the great practice of socialism with Chinese characteristics, so that the people will share in the benefits of cultural development.

八、加快推进以改善民生为重点的社会建设

VIII: Accelerating Social Development with the Focus on Improving People's Livelihood

 社会建设与人民幸福安康息息相关。必须在经济发展的基础上,更加注重社会建设,着力保障和改善民生,推进社会体制改革,扩大公共服务,完善社会管理,促进社会公平正义,努力使全体人民学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居,推动建设和谐社会。

Social development is closely related to the people's well-being. More importance must therefore be attached to social development on the basis of economic growth to ensure and improve people's livelihood, carry out social restructuring, expand public services, improve social management and promote social equity and justice.  We must do our best to ensure that all our people enjoy their rights to education, employment, medical and old-age care, and housing, so as to build a harmonious society.

 (一)优先发展教育,建设人力资源强国。教育是民族振兴的基石,教育公平是社会公平的重要基础。要全面贯彻党的教育方针,坚持育人为本、德育为先,实施素质教育,提高教育现代化水平,培养德智体美全面发展的社会主义建设者和接班人,办好人民满意的教育。优化教育结构,促进义务教育均衡发展,加快普及高中阶段教育,大力发展职业教育,提高高等教育质量。重视学前教育。更新教育观念,深化教学内容方式、考试招生制度、质量评价制度等改革,减轻中小学生课业负担,提高学生综合素质。坚持教育公益性质,加大财政对教育投入,规范教育收费,扶持贫困地区、民族地区教育,健全学生资助制度,保障经济困难家庭、进城务工人员子女平等接受义务教育。加强教师队伍建设,重点提高农村教师素质。鼓励社会力量兴办教育。发展远程教育和继续教育,建设全民学习、终身学习的学习型社会。

1. Give priority to education and turn China into a country rich in human resources.  Education is the cornerstone of national rejuvenation, and equal access to education provides an important underpinning for social equity.  We must implement the Party's educational policy to the letter, focus on educating students with top priority given to cultivating their moral integrity, improve their overall quality, modernize the educational system, and train socialist builders and successors who have all-round attainments in moral, intellectual, physical and aesthetic education. All this is designed to run education to the satisfaction of the people. We will optimize the educational structure, promote balanced development of compulsory educator, move faster toward universal access to senior secondary education, vigorously develop vocational education, and improve the quality of higher education. We will also attach importance to pre-school education.  We will update our views on education and deepen reform in curricula, modes of instruction, the systems of examination and enrollment, and the system for evaluating educational quality.  We will ease the study load of primary and secondary school students and improve their overall quality.  We will continue to run education on a nonprofit basis, increase government spending on education, regulate the collection of education-related fees, support the development of education in poverty-stricken and ethnic autonomous areas, improve the system of financial aid to students, and ensure that children from poor families and of rural migrant workers in cities enjoy equal access to compulsory education as other children. We will build up the ranks of teachers, with the emphasis an improving the quality of teachers in rural areas. Nongovernmental sectors are encouraged to operate educational programs. Distance learning and continuing education will be promoted to make ours a satiety in which every citizen is committed to learning and pursues lifelong learning.

 (二)实施扩大就业的发展战略,促进以创业带动就业。就业是民生之本。要坚持实施积极的就业政策,加强政府引导,完善市场就业机制,扩大就业规模,改善就业结构。完善支持自主创业、自谋职业政策,加强就业观念教育,使更多劳动者成为创业者。健全面向全体劳动者的职业教育培训制度,加强农村富余劳动力转移就业培训。建立统一规范的人力资源市场,形成城乡劳动者平等就业的制度。完善面向所有困难群众的就业援助制度,及时帮助零就业家庭解决就业困难。积极做好高校毕业生就业工作。规范和协调劳动关系,完善和落实国家对农民工的政策,依法维护劳动者权益。

2. Implement a development strategy that promotes job creation and encourage entrepreneurship to create more employment opportunities.  Employment is vital to people's livelihood. We will continue to follow a proactive employment policy, strengthen government guidance, improve the market mechanism for employment, create more jobs and improve the employment structure. We will improve policies to encourage people to start businesses or find jobs on their own and promote a healthy attitude toward employment so that more people in the labor force will launch their own businesses.  We will improve vocational education and training for the labor force and intensify pre-employment training for surplus labor transferred from rural areas. We will establish a unified, standardized labor market and a mechanism that ensures equal employment opportunities for both urban and rural residents. We will improve employment assistance to the needy and make it a priority to help zero-employment families to have job opportunities. We will do our best to help college graduates find jobs. We will regulate and coordinate labor relations, improve and implement government policies concerning rural migrant workers in cities, and protect the rights and interests of every worker in accordance with the law.

(三)深化收入分配制度改革,增加城乡居民收入。合理的收入分配制度是社会公平的重要体现。要坚持和完善按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存的分配制度,健全劳动、资本、技术、管理等生产要素按贡献参与分配的制度,初次分配和再分配都要处理好效率和公平的关系,再分配更加注重公平。逐步提高居民收入在国民收入分配中的比重,提高劳动报酬在初次分配中的比重。着力提高低收入者收入,逐步提高扶贫标准和最低工资标准,建立企业职工工资正常增长机制和支付保障机制。创造条件让更多群众拥有财产性收入。保护合法收入,调节过高收入,取缔非法收入。扩大转移支付,强化税收调节,打破经营垄断,创造机会公平,整顿分配秩序,逐步扭转收入分配差距扩大趋势。

3. Deepen reform of the income distribution system and increase the income of urban and rural residents.  Equitable income distribution is an important indication of social equity. We will adhere to and improve the system whereby distribution according to work remains the predominant mode and coexists with various other modes. We will improve the distribution system to allow factors of production such as labor, capital, technology and managerial expertise to have a rightful share according to their respective contribution. A proper balance will be struck between efficiency and equity in both primary distribution and redistribution, with particular emphasis on equity in redistribution. We will gradually increase the share of personal income in the distribution of national income, and raise that of work remuneration in primary distribution. Vigorous efforts will be made to raise the income of low-income groups, gradually increase poverty-alleviation aid and the minimum wage, and set up a mechanism of regular pay increases for enterprise employees and a mechanism for guaranteeing payment of their salaries. Conditions will be created to enable more citizens to have property income. We will protect lawful incomes, regulate excessively high incomes and ban illegal gains. We will increase transfer payments, intensify the regulation of incomes through taxation, break business monopolies, create equal opportunities, and overhaul income distribution practices with a view to gradually reversing the growing income disparity.

 (四)加快建立覆盖城乡居民的社会保障体系,保障人民基本生活。社会保障是社会安定的重要保证。要以社会保险、社会救助、社会福利为基础,以基本养老、基本医疗、最低生活保障制度为重点,以慈善事业、商业保险为补充,加快完善社会保障体系。促进企业、机关、事业单位基本养老保险制度改革,探索建立农村养老保险制度。全面推进城镇职工基本医疗保险、城镇居民基本医疗保险、新型农村合作医疗制度建设。完善城乡居民最低生活保障制度,逐步提高保障水平。完善失业、工伤、生育保险制度。提高统筹层次,制定全国统一的社会保险关系转续办法。采取多种方式充实社会保障基金,加强基金监管,实现保值增值。健全社会救助体系。做好优抚安置工作。发扬人道主义精神,发展残疾人事业。加强老龄工作。强化防灾减灾工作。健全廉租住房制度,加快解决城市低收入家庭住房困难。

4. Accelerate the establishment of a social security system covering both urban and rural residents and guarantee their basic living conditions.  Social security is an important guarantee of social stability. We will step up the building of a sound social security system that is based on social insurance, assistance and welfare, with basic old-age pension, basic medical care and subsistence allowances as its backbone, and supplemented by charity and commercial insurance. We will promote reform of basic old-age insurance systems in enterprises, Party and government organs and public institutions and explore ways to set up an old-age insurance system in rural areas. We will promote the development of basic medical insurance systems for urban workers and residents and a new type of cooperative medical care system in rural areas. We will improve the system of subsistence allowances for both urban and rural residents and gradually increase such allowances. We will improve the systems of unemployment, workers' compensation and maternity insurances. We will upgrade management of social security funds to higher-level authorities and work out unified methods for transferring social security accounts nationwide. We will provide more social security funds through various means and strengthen their oversight and management to maintain and increase their value. We will improve social assistance. We will do a good job providing special assistance to families of martyrs and servicemen and helping demobilized military personnel return to civilian life. We will promote programs for the disabled in a humanitarian spirit. We will develop more programs for the elderly. We will intensify our efforts in disaster prevention and reduction. We will improve the low-rent housing system and speed up resolution of the housing difficulties of low-income families in urban areas.

(五)建立基本医疗卫生制度,提高全民健康水平。健康是人全面发展的基础,关系千家万户幸福。要坚持公共医疗卫生的公益性质,坚持预防为主、以农村为重点、中西医并重,实行政事分开、管办分开、医药分开、营利性和非营利性分开,强化政府责任和投入,完善国民健康政策,鼓励社会参与,建设覆盖城乡居民的公共卫生服务体系、医疗服务体系、医疗保障体系、药品供应保障体系,为群众提供安全、有效、方便、价廉的医疗卫生服务。提高重大疾病防控和突发公共卫生事件应急处置能力。加强农村三级卫生服务网络和城市社区卫生服务体系建设,深化公立医院改革。建立国家基本药物制度,保证群众基本用药。加强医德医风建设,提高医疗服务质量,确保食品药品安全。坚持计划生育的基本国策,稳定低生育水平,提高出生人口素质。开展爱国卫生运动,发展妇幼卫生事业。

5. Establish a basic medical and health care system and improve the heath of the whale nation.  Health provides the foundation for people's all-round development and has a direct bearing on the happiness of each family. We must maintain the public welfare nature of public medical and health care services, always put disease prevention first, center on rural areas and attach equal importance to traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. We will separate government administration from medical institutions, management from operation, medical care from pharmaceuticals, and for-profit from nonprofit operations. We will increase government responsibilities and spending, improve the national health policy and encourage greater participation of nongovernmental sectors so as to develop systems of public health services, medical services, medical security and medicine supply to provide both urban and rural residents with safe, effective, convenient and affordable medical and health services.  We will enhance our capacity to prevent and control the outbreak of major diseases and respond to public health emergencies. We will improve the three-tier rural health care network spanning the county, township and village and the urban community-based health care system, and deepen reform of public hospitals. We will set up a national system for basic pharmaceuticals to ensure their supply: We will work harder to improve the professional ethics and style of work of health workers and the quality of medical services. We must ensure food and drug safety. We will adhere to the basic state policy of family planning, keep the birthrate low and make the newborns healthier. We will launch patriotic sanitation campaigns and develop health care programs for women and children.

 六)完善社会管理,维护社会安定团结。社会稳定是人民群众的共同心愿,是改革发展的重要前提。要健全党委领导、政府负责、社会协同、公众参与的社会管理格局,健全基层社会管理体制。最大限度激发社会创造活力,最大限度增加和谐因素,最大限度减少不和谐因素,妥善处理人民内部矛盾,完善信访制度,健全党和政府主导的维护群众权益机制。重视社会组织建设和管理。加强流动人口服务和管理。坚持安全发展,强化安全生产管理和监督,有效遏制重特大安全事故。完善突发事件应急管理体制。健全社会治安防控体系,加强社会治安综合治理,深入开展平安创建活动,改善和加强城乡社区警务工作,依法防范和打击违法犯罪活动,保障人民生命财产安全。完善国家安全战略,健全国家安全体制,高度警惕和坚决防范各种分裂、渗透、颠覆活动,切实维护国家安全。

6. Improve social management and safeguard social stability and unity.  Social stability is the common aspiration of the people and an important prerequisite for reform and development. We need to improve the structure of social management comprising Party committee leadership, government responsibility, nongovernmental support and public participation, and improve the system of social management at the primary level. We will stimulate the creativity of society to the greatest extent, maximize factors conducive to harmony and minimize those detrimental to it.  We will properly handle contradictions among the people, improve the system for handling complaints in the form of letters and visits from the public, and strengthen the mechanism for safeguarding the rights and interests of the people in which the Party and the government play the leading role. We will attach importance to the development and management of social organizations. We will improve services for and management of the floating population. We must ensure safe development by strengthening management and oversight of work safety and taking effective measures to prevent serious or exceptionally serious accidents.  We will improve the mechanism of emergency management.  We will improve the crime prevention and control system, maintain law and order through comprehensive measures, launch intensive campaigns to ensure public security, reform and step up community policing in both urban and rural areas, and prevent and crack down on crime in accordance with the law to protect people's lives and property. We will improve the strategy and mechanism for national security, and keep high vigilance against

and resolutely forestall separatist, infiltrative and subversive activities in various forms to safeguard national security.

 和谐社会要靠全社会共同建设。我们要紧紧依靠人民,调动一切积极因素,努力形成社会和谐人人有责、和谐社会人人共享的生动局面。

It requires joint efforts of the whale society to build a harmonious society.  We must therefore rely firmly on the people and mobilize all positive factors to create a lively situation in which everyone is duty-bound to work for and benefits from social harmony.

九、开创国防和军队现代化建设新局面

IX. Opening Up New Prospects for Modernization of National Defense and the Armed Forces

 国防和军队建设,在中国特色社会主义事业总体布局中占有重要地位。必须站在国家安全和发展战略全局的高度,统筹经济建设和国防建设,在全面建设小康社会进程中实现富国和强军的统一。

To strengthen national defense and the armed forces occupies an important place in the overall arrangements for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Bearing in mind the overall strategic interests of national security and development, we must take both economic development and national defense into consideration and make our country prosperous and our armed forces powerful while building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

 全面履行党和人民赋予的新世纪新阶段军队历史使命,必须坚持以毛泽东军事思想、邓小平新时期军队建设思想、江泽民国防和军队建设思想为指导,把科学发展观作为国防和军队建设的重要指导方针,贯彻新时期军事战略方针,加快中国特色军事变革,做好军事斗争准备,提高军队应对多种安全威胁、完成多样化军事任务的能力,坚决维护国家主权、安全、领土完整,为维护世界和平贡献力量。

For the armed forces to fully carry out the historical missions assigned by the Party and the people at this new stage in the new century, we must always follow the guidance of Mao Zedong's military thinking, Deng Xiaoping's thinking on building the armed forces the new period and Jiang Zemin's thinking on building national defense and the armed forcesand take the scientific Outlook on Development as an important guiding principle for strengthening national defense and the armed forces. We must implement the military strategy for the new period, accelerate the revolution in military affairs with Chinese characteristics, ensure military preparedness, and enhance the military's capability to respond to various security threats and accomplish diverse military tasks.  We are determined to safeguard China's sovereignty, security and territorial integrity and help maintain world peace.

 军队革命化、现代化、正规化建设是统一的整体,必须全面加强、协调推进。要始终坚持党对军队绝对领导的根本原则和人民军队的根本宗旨,深入进行军队历史使命、理想信念、战斗精神和社会主义荣辱观教育,大力弘扬听党指挥、服务人民、英勇善战的优良传统。坚持科技强军,按照建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争的战略目标,加快机械化和信息化复合发展,积极开展信息化条件下军事训练,加紧培养大批高素质新型军事人才,切实转变战斗力生成模式。坚持依法治军、从严治军,完善军事法规,加强科学管理。

To make the armed forces more revolutionary, modernized and standardized is an integrated endeavor, and balanced progress must be made in all the three aspects. We must always adhere to the fundamental principle of the Party exercising absolute leadership over the armed forces and the fundamental purpose of the armed forces serving the people. We will educate the military in its historical missions, ideals, beliefs, combat-ready spirit and the socialist maxims of honor and disgrace, and ensure that it carries forward its fine traditions of following the Party's orders, serving the people and fighting valiantly and skillfully. We must build strong armed forces through science and technology. To attain the strategic objective of building computerized armed forces and winning IT-based warfare, we will accelerate composite development of mechanization and computerization, carry out military training under IT-based conditions, intensify our efforts to train a new type of high-caliber military personnel in large numbers and change the mode of generating combat capabilities. We must run the armed forces in accordance with the law, enforce strict discipline, improve relevant laws and regulations arid strengthen scientific management.