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北京的天空因奥运而晴朗

    来源:金融时报  浏览次数:3820  添加时间:2008/4/5

  昨天是北京奥运会倒计时一周年。北京奥组委发言人孙维德称:“北京的空气质量一直在改善。” 但一年后北京的天空真的能够“烟消雾散”吗?

  这种天气让北京的夏日如同受罪:厚重、难闻的烟雾低低地压在城市上空。这要归咎于中国首都中心地区迅速工业化,以及汽车数量不断上升。

  从孙维德的办公室向外望去,最多也就是看到层层灰色。孙维德是北京奥组委(Beijing Olympic organising committee)发言人,他并不担心这种情况对明年奥运会的影响。

  孙维德宣称:“北京的空气质量一直在改善。我相信参赛运动员会感到满意。”

  其他人就没这么肯定了。日本、澳大利亚和美国的体育官员表示,对于空气污染对运动员的影响感到担忧。英国游泳裁判长表示,他会将手下游泳队的抵达时间拖延到最后一刻,以限制肮脏空气带来的风险。

  今年4月,美国能源部下属阿贡国家实验室(Argonne National Laboratory)发布的一项报告称,北京空气质量在20世纪90年代末和21世纪初所获改善,在过去几年中实际上已经丧失。

  孙维德强调,北京正在解决这个问题。不过,他所举最近春季沙尘暴减少的例子,对参赛选手来说不会有什么安慰作用,因为参赛选手是在20088月抵达北京。

  由于中国的高速发展使污染愈演愈烈,实现北京“绿色奥运”诺言的关键,只是为这场赛事采取一些临时性的措施。

  北京计划采取一些措施,减少公路上的汽车数量。此前,在去年的一次国际性峰会期间,北京曾禁止80万官方用车上路,对控制当地空气污染起到了显著效果。

  孙维德还表示,他预计有些工厂会在奥运会期间减产或停产。但是,官方拒绝透露详情,而一些公司表示,它们还不知道政府希望它们怎么做,也不知道自己能否得到补偿。

  电力分销商华北电网公司(North China Grid)表示:“我们可能减少对北京地区的电力供应,但具体细节尚未敲定。”

  阿贡实验室报告称,在某些气候条件下,北京一半以上的细颗粒物污染和20%30%的臭氧来自邻省河北,而附近的天津市和山东省也“有着重大影响”。

  报告指出,就算北京把人为排放削减至零,此类污染物的水平在奥运会期间仍可能达到危险的水平。

  报告称:“由于对零排放的限制实际上不可能实现,同时中国目前正在经历巨大的经济增长,2008年之前地区性排放更多、细颗粒物和臭氧更集中的威胁是切实存在的。”

  It was the kind of day that can make Beijing summers a trial a thick foul-smelling smog sat low over the city fed by the Chinese capital's rapidly industrialising hinterland and expanding car population.

  But though the view from Sun Weide's office was yielding little more than shades of grey the spokesman for the Beijing Olympic organising committee was unworried about its implications for next year's games.

  “The air quality in Beijing has been improving,” Mr Sun declared. I think the athletes will be happy.

  Others are not so sure. Sports officials from Japan Australia and the US have expressed concern about the effects of air pollution on athletes. Britain's swimming director said he would delay his team's arrival to the last moment to limit the risk posed by dirty air.

  In April a report issued by the US energy department's Argonne National Laboratory said improvements made to Beijing's air quality in the late 1990s and the 2000s had actually been lost in the past few years.

  Mr Sun stresses that Beijing is working on the problem ? though his example of a recent reduction in spring sandstorms will be of little comfort to competitors arriving in August 2008.

  With the sheer pace of Chinese development fuelling pollution the key to meeting Beijing's promise of a Green Games will be temporary measures for the event.

  The city plans some kind of cut to the number of cars on the roads after a ban on 800000 official sedans during an international summit last year had a noticeable impact on local air pollution.

  Mr Sun also says he expects some factories to reduce or stop production during the games. But officials decline to give details and companies say they do not know what is expected of them or whether they can expect compensation.

  “It's possible that we will reduce electricity supply to the Beijing area but the details have not yet been decided,” says North China Grid a power distributor.

  The Argonne report says that under some weather conditions more than half of Beijing's fine particle pollution and 20 to 30 per cent of its ozone comes from neighbouring Hebei province while nearby Tianjin city and Shandong province also exert significant influence.

  Even if Beijing cuts man-made emissions to zero levels of such pollutants could still hit danger levels during the games it says.

  “Because the limit of zero emissions cannot be achieved in practice and because China is presently undergoing tremendous economic growth the threat of higher regional emissions and higher concentrations of fine [particulate matter] and ozone by 2008 is very real,” the report says.

·上篇文章:绿色奥运、科技奥运、人文奥运
·下篇文章:陈冠希不雅照新闻发布会道歉声明原文及翻译
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