We must respect work, knowledge, competent people and creation. This should be an important policy of the Party and state to be conscientiously implemented in society at large. We need to respect and protect all work that is good for the people and society. All work that contributes to the socialist modernization drive in China, physical or mental and simple or complicated, is glorious and should be acknowledged and respected. All investors at home or from overseas should be encouraged to carry out business activities in China's development. All legitimate income, from work or not, should be protected. It is improper to judge whether people are politically progressive or backward simply by whether they own property or how much property they own. But rather, we should judge them mainly by their political awareness, state of mind and performance, by how they have acquired and used their property, and by how they have contributed to the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics through their work. It is necessary to foster notions and form a business mechanism inconformity with the basic economic system in the primary stage of socialism and create a social environment in which people are encouraged to achieve something and helped to make a success of their career, so as to unleash all the vitality contained in work, knowledge, technology, management and capital and give full play to all sources of social wealth for the benefit of the people.
In building socialism with Chinese characteristics, the fundamental interests of the people of the whole country are identical, on the basis of which concrete interest relations and internal contradictions can be adjusted. In the formulation and implementation of the Party's principles and policies, a basic point of departure is that we should represent the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, and correctly reflect and take into account the interests of different groups of people, enabling the whole people to advance steadily toward the goal of common prosperity. We should protect the vitality for further growth of the developed regions, strong industries and people who have become rich first through hard work and lawful business operations and encouraging them to create social wealth. More importantly, we must pay great attention to less developed areas and the industries and people in straitened circumstances and show concern for them. In particular, we must see to it that the people in financial difficulties have subsistence allowances, and we must take effective measures to help them find jobs and improve their living conditions so that they will truly feel the warmth of our socialist society.
4. To carry out the important thought of Three Represents, it is essential to push forward Party building in a spirit of reform and instill new vitality in the Party. Attaching vital importance to and strengthening Party building is a magic weapon with which our Party has grown from a small and weak force to a large and strong one, risen in spite of setbacks and matured gradually in surmounting difficulties. As the historical experience of the Party over the past 80 years and more shows, the most important point is that we must build up the Party according to its political line, central task and general goal for building it with a view to enhancing its creativity, cohesion and fighting capacity.
Persisting in self-examination in compliance with the requirements of the times and pursuing self-improvement in a spirit of reform are the fundamental guarantee that our Party will always remain a Marxist party, will never be divorced from the people and will be full of vitality. We must be good at both reviewing our useful experience and learning lessons from our mistakes. We must be good at both leading the people ahead by putting forward and implementing the correct theory and line and acquiring the motivation for progress from the people's creations in practice and their desire for development. We must be good at both understanding and changing the objective world and organizing and guiding cadres and other Party members to strengthen their efforts to change their subjective world in practice. Bearing these requirements in mind, we must integrate adherence to the basic tenets of Marxism with efforts for theoretical innovation, maintenance of the fine tradition of the Party with promotion of the spirit of the times, and consolidation of the Party's class base with expansion of its mass base so that the Party serves as a strong core of leadership that is consolidated ideologically, politically and organizationally and always stands in the forefront of the times leading the people forward in solidarity.
All in all, the important thought of Three Represents is always in a process of development and progress. The whole Party must continue to emancipate the mind, come up with new ideas in respect of theory and create something new in practice. It must carry out the important thought of Three Represents in all endeavors of the socialist modernization drive and in all aspects of Party building so that it always advances with the times and shares weal and woe with the people.
III. Objectives of Building a Well-off Society in an All-Round Way
Thanks to the joint efforts of the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups, we have attained the objectives of the first two steps of the three-step strategy for China's modernization drive, and by and large, the people have become well-off. This is a great victory for the socialist system and a new milestone in the history of the development of the Chinese nation.
We must be aware that China is in the primary stage of socialism and will remain so for a long time to come. The well-off life we are leading is still at a low level; it is not all-inclusive and is very uneven. The principal contradiction in our society is still one between the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people and the backwardness of social production. Our productive forces, science, technology and education are still relatively backward, so there is still a long way to go before we achieve industrialization and modernization. The dual structure in urban and rural economy has not yet been changed, the gap between regions is still widening and there are still quite a large number of impoverished people. China's population continues to grow, the proportion of the aged is getting larger, and the pressure on employment and social security is mounting. The contradiction between the ecological environment and natural resources on the one hand and economic and social development on the other is becoming increasingly conspicuous. We still feel pressure from developed countries as they have the upper hand in such fields as the economy, science and technology. The economic structure and managerial systems in other fields remain to be perfected. There are still some problems we cannot afford to overlook in improving democracy and the legal system as well as the ideological and ethical standards. We need to work hard over a long period of time to consolidate and uplift our current well-off standard of living.
An overview of the situation shows that for our country, the first two decades of the 21st century are a period of important strategic opportunities, which we must seize tightly and which offers bright prospects. In accordance with the development objectives up to 2010, the centenary of the Party and that of New China, as proposed at the Fifteenth National Congress, we need to concentrate on building a well-off society of a higher standard in an all-round way to the benefit of well over one billion people in this period. We will further develop the economy, improve democracy, advance science and education, enrich culture, foster social harmony and upgrade the texture of life for the people. The two decades of development will serve as an inevitable connecting link for attainting the third-step strategic objectives for our modernization drive as well as a key stage for improving the socialist market economy and opening wider to the outside world. Building on what is achieved at this stage and continuing to work for several more decades, we will have in the main accomplished the modernization program and turned China into a strong, prosperous, democratic and culturally advanced socialist country by the middle of this century.
The objectives of building a well-off society in an all-round way are as follows:
-- On the basis of optimized structure and better economic returns, efforts will be made to quadruple the GDP of the year 2000 by 2020, and China's overall national strength and international competitiveness will increase markedly. We will in the main achieve industrialization and establish a full-fledged socialist market economy and a more open and viable economic system. The proportion of urban population will go up considerably and the trend of widening differences between industry and agriculture, between urban and rural areas and between regions will be reversed step by step. We will have a fairly sound social security system. There will be a higher rate of employment. People will have more family property and lead a more prosperous life.
-- Socialist democracy and the legal system will be further improved. The basic principle of ruling the country by law will be implemented completely. The political, economic and cultural rights and interests of the people will be respected and guaranteed in real earnest. Democracy at the grassroots level will be better practiced. People will enjoy a sound public order and live and work in peace and contentment.
-- The ideological and ethical standards, the scientific and cultural qualities, and the health of the whole people will be enhanced notably. A sound modern national educational system, scientific, technological and cultural innovation systems as well as nationwide fitness and medical and health systems will take shape. People will have access to better education. We will make senior secondary education basically universal in the country and eliminate illiteracy. A learning society in which all the people will learn or even pursue life-long education will emerge to boost their all-round development.
-- The capability of sustainable development will be steadily enhanced. The ecological environment will be improved. The efficiency of using resources will be increased significantly. We will enhance harmony between man and nature to push the whole society onto a path to civilized development featuring the growth of production, an affluent life and a sound ecosystem.
The objectives set at this congress for building a well-off society in an all-round way are objectives of comprehensive economic, political and cultural development of socialism with Chinese characteristics, objectives well geared to the efforts to speed up modernization. They tally with the national conditions, the realities of the modernization drive and the people's aspirations. They are of great significance. In order to attain the Party's objectives for the new stage in the new century, it is imperative to come up with new ideas for development, make new breakthroughs in reform, break new ground in opening up and take new moves in all fields of endeavor. All localities and departments must proceed from their actual conditions and take effective measures to attain the objectives. Places where conditions permit may develop faster and take the lead in accomplishing modernization by and large on the basis of building a well-off society in an all-round way. We are sure that after attaining the objectives of building a well-off society in an all-round way, our motherland will become stronger and more prosperous, the people will live a better and happier life, and socialism with Chinese characteristics will further demonstrate its great superiority.
IV. Economic Development and Restructuring
In building a well-off society in an all-round way, it is of vital importance to take economic development as the central task and keep releasing and developing the productive forces. In light of the new trends in the economy, science and technology of the world and the requirements of our national economic development in the new period, we should undertake the following main tasks for economic development and reform in the first two decades of this century: to improve the socialist market economy, promote strategic adjustment of the economic structure, basically accomplish industrialization, energetically apply IT, accelerate modernization, maintain a sustained, rapid and sound development of the national economy and steadily uplift the people's living standards. In the first decade, we will accomplish all the objectives set in the Tenth Five-Year Plan and for the years up to 2010 so as to bring the economic aggregate, overall national strength and the people's living standards up to a much higher level and lay a solid foundation for even greater development in the second decade.
1. Take a new road to industrialization and implement the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education and that of sustainable development. It remains an arduous historical task in the process of our modernization drive to accomplish industrialization. IT application is a logical choice if industrialization and modernization of our country are to be accelerated. It is, therefore, necessary to persist in using IT to propel industrialization, which will, in turn, stimulate IT application, blazing a new trail to industrialization featuring high scientific and technological content, good economic returns, low resources consumption, little environmental pollution and a full display of advantages in human resources.
We must press ahead to optimize and upgrade the industrial structure so as to bring about an industrial pattern with high and new technology industries as the leader, basic and manufacturing industries as the kingpin and the service industry developing in all areas. We must give priority to the development of the information industry and apply IT in all areas of economic and social development. We must develop high and new technology industries to provide breakthroughs in stimulating economic growth. It is necessary to transform traditional industries with high and new technology and advanced adaptive technology and invigorate the equipment manufacturing industry. We should continue to strengthen infrastructure. We should accelerate the development of the modern service sector and raise the proportion of the tertiary industry in the national economy. We must correctly handle the relationships of development between the high and new technology industries and traditional industries, between capital-and-technology-intensive industries and labor-intensive industries and between virtual economy and real economy.
In taking a new road to industrialization, we must give play to the important role of science and technology as the primary productive force and pay close attention to improving the quality and efficiency of economic growth by relying on scientific and technological progress and raising the qualities of labor force. We must strengthen basic research and research in high technology, promote key technological innovation and systems integration so that technology will develop by leaps and bounds. We must encourage scientific and technological innovation and acquire key technology and independent intellectual property rights in key areas and a number of domains in frontier science and technology. We must deepen the reform of the administration systems of science, technology and education, strengthen the integration of science, technology and education with the economy, improve the service system for the development of science and technology and quicken the pace of translating research achievements into practical productive forces. We must press ahead with the building of a national innovation system. We must give play to the role of venture capital and develop a mechanism of capital operation and human capital pooling for promoting scientific and technological innovation and start-ups. We must improve the system of intellectual property rights protection. We must give top priority to sustainable development, adhere to the basic state policies of family planning and environmental and resources protection, keep the birthrate low and rationally develop and economically utilize all kinds of natural resources. We must lose no time in solving the problem of water shortages in some areas and build the south-to-north water diversion project. We should promote marine development and do well in the comprehensive improvement of land and resources. It is necessary to help the whole nation see the importance of environmental protection and do a good job of ecological conservation and improvement.
2. Make the rural economy flourish and speed up urbanization. A major task for building a well-off society in an all-round way is to make overall planning for urban and rural economic and social development, build modern agriculture, develop the rural economy and increase the income of farmers. We must strengthen the position of agriculture as the foundation of the economy, carry on the restructuring of agriculture and the rural economy, protect and raise the comprehensive grain production capacity, improve the system for ensuring the quality of farm produce and enhance the competitiveness of agriculture in the market. We must push forward the industrialized operation of agriculture, better organize farmers in their access to the market and improve the overall efficiency of agriculture. We must develop farm produce processing industry to boost the county economy. We must open up more rural markets and enliven the distribution of farm produce by improving its market system.
It is an inevitable trend of industrialization and modernization for surplus rural labor to move to non-agricultural industries and to cities and towns. It is essential to raise the level of urbanization gradually and persist in the coordinated development of large, medium and small cities and small towns along the path to urbanization with Chinese characteristics. We should develop small towns on the basis of existing county seats and of organic towns where conditions permit, make scientific planning and a rational layout, integrating their development with the expansion of township and village enterprises and the rural service sector. All the institutional and policy barriers to urbanization must be removed and the rational and orderly flow of rural labor guided.
We must adhere to the basic rural policies of the Party and keep stabilizing and improving the two-tier management system that integrates unified with separate management on the basis of household contract management. Wherever conditions permit, the transfer of the contractual right of land can be carried out according to law and on a voluntary and compensatory basis so as to develop scale operation step by step. We must respect farmer households as market players and encourage innovation in the rural management system. We must enhance the economic strength of the collectives. We should establish and improve a commercialized rural service system. We must invest more in agriculture, give it more support and accelerate the progress of agricultural science and technology and the building of rural infrastructure. We should improve financial services in rural areas. We must continue with the reform in tax and fee in rural areas to lighten the burdens of farmers and protect their interests.
3. Advance the development of the western region and bring about a coordinated development of regional economies. The implementation of the strategy for the development of the western region bears on the overall situation of national development, the ethnic unity and the stability in border areas. To lay a solid foundation and go ahead in a down-to-earth manner, we must give priority to infrastructure and ecological environment improvement and strive for breakthroughs in a decade. We must develop industries with local advantages and propel the development of key areas. We should develop science, technology and education and train and make the best use of all human resources. The state should provide the western region with greater support in such areas as investment projects, tax policies and transfer payments, gradually build up long-term and stable sources of funds for its development, improve the investment environment, and guide foreign investment and domestic capital toward that region. People there should further emancipate their minds, enhance their self-development capabilities and explore a new path to accelerated development in reform and opening up.
The central region should redouble its efforts toward structural adjustment, giving impetus to industrialized operation of agriculture, transforming traditional industries, cultivating new economic growth points and speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The eastern region should quicken the pace of upgrading its industrial structure, develop modern agriculture, high and new technology industries and high ＆#118alue-added processing and manufacturing industries and further develop the outward-looking economy. We should encourage the special economic zones and the Pudong New Area in Shanghai to spearhead, among other things, institutional innovation and greater openness. We should support the northeastern region and other old industrial bases in accelerating their adjustments and transformation and support cities and areas mainly engaged in natural resources exploitation in their efforts to develop alternative industries. We should support the old revolutionary base areas and areas inhabited by ethnic minorities in expediting their development. The state should give more support to main grain producing areas. The eastern, central and western regions should strengthen economic exchanges and cooperation to complement one another and secure common development so as to form a number of distinctive economic zones and belts.
4. Stick to and improve the basic economic system and deepen the reform of the state property management system. In line with the requirements of releasing and developing the productive forces, we must uphold and improve the basic economic system, with public ownership playing a dominant role and diverse forms of ownership developing side by side. First, it is necessary to consolidate and develop unswervingly the public sector of the economy. Expansion of the state sector and its control of the lifeline of the national economy is of crucial importance in displaying the superiority of the socialist system and reinforcing the economic strength, national defense capabilities and national cohesion. As an important component of the public sector, the collective sector of the economy plays a significant role in achieving common prosperity. Secondly, it is necessary to encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public sectors of the economy. The non-public sector of self-employed, private and other forms of ownership is an important component part of the socialist market economy. They play an important role in mobilizing the initiative of all quarters of the society to quicken the development of the productive forces. Thirdly, we must stimulate the development of the non-public sectors while keeping the public sector as the dominant player, incorporating both into the process of the socialist modernization drive instead of setting them against each other. All sectors of the economy can very well display their respective advantages in market competition and stimulate one another for common development.
Continuing to adjust the layout and structure of the state sector and reform the state property management system is a major task for deepening economic restructuring. We should give full play to the initiative of both the central and local authorities on the precondition of upholding state ownership. The state should make laws and regulations and establish a state property management system under which the Central Government and local governments perform the responsibilities of investor on behalf of the state respectively, enjoying owner's equity, combining rights with obligations and duties and administering assets, personnel and other affairs. The Central Government should represent the state in performing the functions as investor in large state-owned enterprises, infrastructure and important natural resources that have a vital bearing on the lifeline of the national economy and state security while local governments should represent the state in performing the functions as investors with regard to other state property. The Central Government and the provincial and municipal (prefectural) governments should set up state property management organizations. We should continue to explore systems and modes for managing state property effectively. Governments at all levels must strictly abide by the laws and regulations concerning the management of state property, persisting in the separation of government functions from enterprise management and separation of ownership from management so that enterprises can operate independently, assume sole responsibility for their profits or losses and preserve and increase the ＆#118alue of state property.
State-owned enterprises are the pillar of the national economy. We should deepen the reform of state-owned enterprises and further explore diversified forms for effectively realizing public ownership, especially state ownership. We should promote institutional, technological and managerial innovations in enterprises. Except for a tiny number of enterprises that must be funded solely by the state, all the others should introduce the joint-stock system to develop a mixed sector of the economy. Sources of investment must be diversified. The controlling shares in lifeline enterprises must be held by the state. Large and medium state-owned enterprises must continue their reform to convert themselves into standard companies in compliance with the requirements of the modern enterprise system and improve their corporate governance. Monopoly industries should carry out reforms to introduce competition mechanisms. We should form large internationally competitive companies and enterprise groups through market forces and policy guidance. We should give a freer rein to small and medium state-owned enterprises to invigorate themselves. We should deepen the reform of collective enterprises and give more support and help to the growth of the various forms of the collective sector of the economy.
We must give full scope to the important role of the non-public sector of self-employed, private and other forms of ownership of the economy in stimulating economic growth, creating more jobs and activating the market. We should expand the areas for the market access of domestic nongovernmental capital and adopt measures with regard to investment, financing, taxation, land use, foreign trade and other aspects to carry out fair competition. We should strengthen the supervision and administration of the non-public sectors according to law to promote their sound development. We should improve the legal system for protecting private property.
5. Improve the modern market system and tighten and improve macroeconomic control. We should give a fuller play to the basic role of the market in the allocation of resources and build up a unified, open, competitive and orderly modern market system. We should go ahead with reform, opening up, stability and development of the capital market. We should develop markets for property rights, land, labor and technology and create an environment for the equal use of production factors by market players. We must deepen the reform of the distribution system and introduce modern ways of distribution. We must rectify and standardize the order of the market economy and establish a social credit system compatible with a modern market economy. We must get rid of trade monopolies and regional blockades to allow free movement of goods and production factors on markets around the country.
We must improve the government functions of economic regulation, market supervision, social administration and public services, and reduce and standardize administrative procedures for examination and approval. We must stimulate economic growth, create more jobs, stabilize prices and maintain balance of international payments as the main macroeconomic control objectives. Stimulating domestic demand is an essential and long-standing factor underlying China's economic growth. We must stick to the policy of stimulating domestic demand and implement corresponding macroeconomic policies in light of actual needs. We must adjust the relationship between investment and consumption to raise the proportion of consumption in GDP gradually. We should improve the macroeconomic control system featuring the coordination of state planning and fiscal and monetary policies to give play to economic leverage. We should deepen the reform of the fiscal, taxation, banking, investment and financing systems. We should improve the budgetary decision-making and management system, step up the supervision of revenue and expenditures and intensify tax administration. We should carry out the reform steadily to deregulate interest rates to leave them to market forces, optimize the allocation of financial resources, strengthen regulation and prevent and defuse financial risks so as to provide better banking services for economic and social development.
6. Deepen the reform of the income distribution system and improve the social security system. Rationalizing the relations of income distribution bears on the immediate interests of the general public and the display of their initiative. We should adjust and standardize the relations of distribution among the state, enterprises and individuals. We should establish the principle that labor, capital, technology, managerial expertise and other production factors participate in the distribution of income in accordance with their respective contributions, thereby improving the system under which distribution according to work is dominant and a variety of modes of distribution coexist. We should give priority to efficiency with due consideration to fairness, earnestly implementing the distribution policy while advocating the spirit of devotion and guarding against an excessive disparity in income while opposing equalitarianism. In primary distribution, we should pay more attention to efficiency, bringing the market forces into play and encouraging part of the people to become rich first through honest labor and lawful operations. In redistribution, we should pay more attention to fairness and strengthen the function of the government in regulating income distribution to narrow the gap if it is too wide. We should standardize the order of income distribution, properly regulate the excessively high income of some monopoly industries and outlaw illegal gains. Bearing in mind the objective of common prosperity, we should try to raise the proportion of the middle-income group and increase the income of the low-income group.
Establishing and improving a social security system compatible with the level of economic development constitutes an important guarantee for social stability and long-term peace and order in the country. We should stick to and improve the basic old-age pension and medical insurance systems for urban workers, combining socially pooled funds with personal contributions. We should improve the systems of unemployment insurance and subsistence allowances for urban residents. We should try various channels to raise and accumulate social security funds. Reasonable standards for social security benefits should be set in light of local conditions. We should develop social relief and welfare programs in urban and rural areas. Wherever conditions permit, we should try to establish systems of old-age pensions, medical insurance and subsistence allowances in rural areas.
7. Do a better job in opening up by "bringing in" and "going out". In response to the new situation of economic globalization and China's entry into the WTO, we should take part in international economic and technological cooperation and competition on a broader scale, in more spheres and on a higher level, make the best use of both international and domestic markets, optimize the allocation of resources, expand the space for development and accelerate reform and development by opening up.
We should expand trade in goods and services. We should implement the strategy of market diversification, bring into play our comparative advantages, consolidate our existing markets and open new ones in an effort to increase exports. We should sharpen the competitive edge of our goods and services for export by ensuring good quality. We should optimize our import mix and focus on bringing in advanced technology and key equipment. We should deepen the reform of the system of trade and economic relations with other countries, encouraging more enterprises to engage in foreign trade and improving relevant taxation systems and the trade financing mechanism.
We should attract more foreign direct investment and use it more effectively. We will open the service sector to the outside world step by step. We will utilize medium- and long-term foreign investment in many ways, combining it with the domestic economic restructuring and the reorganization and transformation of state-owned enterprises and encouraging multinational corporations to invest in agriculture and manufacturing and high and new technology industries. We should try to bring in from overseas large numbers of professionals and other intellectual resources in various areas. We should improve the environment for investment, grant national treatment to foreign investors and make relevant policies and regulations more transparent. Implementation of the strategy of "going out" is an important measure taken in the new stage of opening up. We should encourage and help relatively competitive enterprises with various forms of ownership to invest abroad in order to increase export of goods and labor services and bring about a number of strong multinational enterprises and brand names. We should take an active part in regional economic exchanges and cooperation. In opening wider to the outside world, we must pay great attention to safeguarding our national economic security.
8. Do everything possible to create more jobs and improve the people's lives. Employment has a vital bearing on the people's livelihood. The task of increasing employment is arduous now and will remain so for a long time to come. It is a long-term strategy and policy of the state to expand employment. Party committees and governments at all levels must take it as their major obligation to improve the business environment and create more jobs. We should open up more avenues for employment and develop labor-intensive industries. We should give policy support to enterprises that increase jobs or reemploy laid-off workers. We should help the general public to change their mentality about employment, introduce flexible and diverse forms of employment and encourage people to find jobs on their own or become self-employed. We should improve the system of pre-job training and employment services and raise workers' skills for new jobs. We should strengthen employment management in accordance with law, safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of workers, pay great attention to safety at work and protect the safety of state property and people's life.
The fundamental goal of economic development is to uplift the living standards and quality of life of the people. As the economy develops, we should increase the income of urban and rural residents, expand the scope of their consumption and optimize the consumption structure so as to meet the people's multifarious material and cultural needs. Further efforts should be made to develop public service facilities, better people's living environment and expand community services in order to make life easier for the people. We should establish a medical service and health care system that meets the requirements of the new situation. We should improve medical and health conditions in rural areas and the medical and health care for urban and rural residents. We should build up various programs to help the handicapped. We should intensify our efforts to fight poverty through development, build on the achievements we have scored in this regard, strive to accomplish the task of providing adequate food and clothing for the impoverished rural population and gradually enable them to lead a well-off life.
Accomplishing the tasks set for economic development and restructuring is of decisive significance to accelerating our socialist modernization. So long as the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups work hard with one heart and one mind, we will definitely establish a mature socialist market economy and maintain a sustained, rapid and sound development of the national economy at the new stage in the new century.