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关于国民经济和社会发展第十个五年计划纲要的报告中英对照(下)

    来源:翻译界  浏览次数:3257  添加时间:2008/3/31

六、落实科教兴国战略,大力开发人才资源


这是《纲要》的重要内容,也是实现今后五年各项任务的重要保证。


促进科技进步和创新,为结构调整和经济发展提供强大动力。一要积极推进具有战略意义的高技术研究,力争在一些关系国民经济命脉和国家安全的关键技术领域取得突破。努力提高自主创新能力,促进高新技术成果产业化。二要为传统产业升级提供技术支持。重点在农产品加工及转化、装备制造、节水节能、纺织品后整理等方面的技术取得进展,加快高新技术向传统产业渗透。三要加强基础研究和应用基础研究,提高科技持续创新能力。加强基础科学重点领域的前沿性交叉性研究。选择我国具有优势和对发展有重大意义的领域,加强应用基础研究,力争在基因组学、信息科学、纳米科学、生态科学和地球科学等方面取得新进展。促进自然科学与社会科学的交叉融合,推动管理科学发展。重视发展哲学社会科学,推进理论创新。


加快科技体制改革步伐,进一步促进科技与经济紧密结合。加强国家创新体系建设。推动企业成为技术进步和创新的主体。继续鼓励技术开发类科研院所进入企业或改制为企业。积极推进社会公益类科研院所改革。培育和形成一批具有国际影响的科研机构。发展社会化的科技中介服务业。完善风险投资机制,建立创业板股票市场,支持中小企业技术创新。加大国家和社会对科技的投入。加强国家重点实验室建设。


坚持教育适度超前发展,为国民经济和社会发展服务。发展教育,要面向现代化、面向世界、面向未来,着力推进素质教育,促进学生德、智、体、美全面发展。巩固基本普及九年义务教育和基本扫除青壮年文盲的成果,加快高中阶段教育和高等教育的发展,重点建设一批高水平大学和学科。大力发展职业教育和职业培训,建立职业教育与普通教育相互沟通的教育体系。发展成人教育和多种形式的继续教育,逐步形成终身教育体系。重视发展儿童早期教育。利用信息技术发展远程教育。根据经济和社会发展的要求,继续调整教育结构和布局,优化专业设置,更新教材,改革课程体系、考试评价制度和教学方法,提高教学质量。加强德育,尤其要重视青少年的品德教育,改进学校思想政治工作。搞好教师队伍建设,全面提高教师的思想和业务素质。


深化办学体制和教育管理体制改革。依法落实高校办学自主权,继续推进高校后勤服务社会化。鼓励、支持和规范社会力量办学。增加国家和社会对教育的投入。适应农村 ?nbsp| 费改革后的新情况,县级政府要负责对基础教育经费的统筹,落实教师工资统一发放的措施。中央财政和省级财政要加大对困难地区、民族地区教育的转移支付和专项投入。健全奖学金、助学金和助学贷款等制度。采取有力措施,切实制止学校乱收费。


实施人才战略,把培养、吸引和用好人才作为一项重大任务。着眼于现代化建设全局和长远发展,培养和造就坚持走有中国特色社会主义道路,有较高政治理论素养和开拓精神,掌握现代科学文化和管理知识,并经过实践考验的高素质领导人才队伍。培养和造就具有公仆意识,廉洁、勤政、高素质、专业化的公务员队伍。培养和造就掌握先进科学技术和管理知识、创新能力强、适应经济和社会发展需要的各类专业人才队伍和企业经营管理者队伍。重视培养具有世界前沿水平的学科带头人。普遍提高全体劳动者的科学素养和劳动技能。深化干部人事制度改革,建立和完善对各级各类人才的选拔任用、考核评价、流动配置、激励监督的制度,形成有利于人才辈出、人尽其才的机制。建立和完善人才市场。依法保护知识产权。吸引聘用海外高级专门人才。鼓励留学人员回国工作或以适当方式为祖国服务。


VI. Implementing the Strategy of Developing China Through Science and Education and Vigorously Tapping Human Resources


This is an important component of the Outline as well as an important guarantee for accomplishing the various tasks during the next five years.


Stimulating scientific and technological progress and innovation to give a strong impetus to structural readjustment and economic development. First, we need to vigorously conduct strategically significant high technology research, strive to make breakthroughs in some key technological fields that have a direct bearing on economic lifelines and national security, improve our innovative capability, and accelerate the application of high and new technology in production. Second, technological support needs to be provided for the upgrading of traditional industries. We need to concentrate on making technological progress in the processing and converting of agricultural products, manufacturing equipment, conserving water and energy, and finishing textiles. We also need to accelerate the application of high and new technology in traditional industries. Third, we need to strengthen basic research and applied basic research and improve our ability to make sustained progress in scientific and technological innovation. We need to strengthen pioneering and interdisciplinary research in key fields of the basic sciences. We have to increase basic research in selected fields where we have been doing well and which have a great bearing on development, and we have to strive to make fresh progress in the important fields of genomics, information technology, nanoscience, ecology and geoscience. We have to facilitate the integration of natural and social sciences and promote the development of management science. Emphasis should be placed on the development of philosophy and other social sciences and the advances of theoretical innovation.


We need to accelerate the reform of the structure of scientific disciplines and technological fields and promote the closer connection of science and technology with the economy. Efforts to develop a state system to stimulate innovation need to be increased, and enterprises should be encouraged to play an important role in technological progress and innovation. We need to continue to encourage research institutes engaged in technological development to merge with enterprises or be turned into enterprises, push forward the reform of non-profit research institutes, and establish a number of research institutes that can exert international influence. We need to develop agencies providing scientific and technological services. We need to improve the venture capital investment mechanism, establish a growth enterprise market, and support small and medium-sized enterprises in technological innovation. The state and the society need to invest more in science and technology. Great efforts have to be made to build national key laboratories.


Persisting in the appropriate development of future-oriented education to serve national economic and social development. In developing education, we should meet the needs of modernization, the world and the future, and concentrate on improving quality-oriented education to ensure that students improve in terms of their moral qualities, intellectual ability, physical fitness and aesthetic appreciation. We need to consolidate the achievements of making nine-year compulsory education basically universal in the country and eliminating illiteracy among young and middle-aged people, accelerate the expansion of senior secondary school education and higher education, and develop high-level programs in selected universities and disciplines. Great efforts have to be made to develop vocational education and training and to establish an educational system featuring the integration of vocational education with general education. We need to develop adult education and various forms of continuing education and gradually establish a system of lifelong education. Great emphasis should be placed on childrens early education. Information technology needs to be used to develop long-distance education. In light of the needs of economic and social development, we need to continue to revise the educational structure and organization, optimize the division of disciplines, update teaching materials, reform the curriculum, examination and evaluation systems, improve the methods and quality of instruction, strengthen moral education, especially for young people, improve ideological and political work, recruit a strong corps of capable teachers, and raise the ideological and professional levels of teachers.


We need to deepen the reform of the systems for operating schools and managing education. We need to allow institutions of higher learning to make operating decisions according to law, and to continue the transformation to a system of independent operation of support services in universities and colleges. We need to encourage and help all sectors of society to run schools, and we need to exercise oversight over their operation. In light of new conditions following the reform of taxes and fees in rural areas, county governments should be responsible for overall planning of spending for elementary education. Measures must be implemented to guarantee the coordinated payment of teachers salaries. The state and society need to invest more in education. More transfer payments and investment in special projects from the central and provincial financial departments have to be provided for education in poverty-stricken areas and areas inhabited by ethnic groups. We need to improve the systems of scholarships, grants and loans to support students, and we need to take effective measures to curb arbitrary charges levied by schools.


Making efforts to implement the strategy of tapping human resources, and focusing on the important tasks of training, attracting and utilizing talented people. In light of the overall interests of the modernization drive and long-term development, we need to train and nurture a contingent of leading cadres who are highly competent, who persist in taking the socialist road with Chinese characteristics, who have a good understanding of political theory and a pioneering spirit, who have mastered modern science and culture and acquired managerial expertise, and who are well-experienced. We need to train and cultivate a contingent of specialized, high quality public servants who are honest, industrious and eager to serve the people, and a contingent of professional personnel and enterprise managers who have advanced technological and managerial knowledge and innovative ability and meet the needs of economic and social development. We need to attach importance to training leading scholars in frontier disciplines and improving the scientific qualifications and working skills of the entire labor force. We need to deepen the reform of the personnel system; establish and improve the methods by which professionals are recruited, examined, evaluated, transferred, motivated and supervised; and formulate a mechanism that encourages talented people to emerge in large numbers and to make full use of their talent. We need to establish and improve the human resources market and protect intellectual property rights in accordance with the law. We need to attract and employ highly qualified professional personnel from abroad, and encourage students studying overseas to come back to work in China or serve their country in other appropriate ways.


七、进一步深化改革和扩大对外开放


要按照逐步完善社会主义市场经济体制,促进结构调整和经济发展的要求,积极推进改革,扩大对外开放。


继续深化国有企业改革,使企业真正成为市场竞争的主体。重点是加快建立和完善现代企业制度。鼓励国有大中型企业通过规范上市、中外合资和相互参股等形式,实行股份制,转换经营机制。对关系国民经济命脉和国家安全的重要企业,国家必须控股;对其它企业,不必都要控股。积极探索国有资产管理的有效形式。健全企业法人治理结构。特别要建立和完善对国有企业的监管机制,充分发挥监事会的作用。深化企业人事、劳动和分配制度改革,建立健全激励机制和约束机制,强化科学管理。要结合产业结构调整,坚持 “有进有退、有所为有所不为”的方针,推进国有经济布局的战略性调整。继续放开搞活国有中小企业。进一步实行政企分开,切实转变政府职能,减少行政性审批。发挥商会、行业协会等中介组织的作用。推进电力、铁路、民航、通信等行业管理体制改革,引入竞争机制。通过改革,使政府与企业的关系真正转到符合社会主义市场经济要求的轨道上来。继续调整和完善所有制结构。坚持以公有制经济为主体,发挥国有经济主导作用,发展多种形式的集体经济,支持、鼓励和引导私营、个体经济健康发展。 大力整顿和规范市场经济秩序,进一步发展市场体系。这既是保证当前经济正常运行的迫切需要,又是完善社会主义市场经济体制的重要举措。要健全市场法律法规,严格执法。完善市场监督机制,运用现代科技手段,加大监管力度。坚持不懈地打击制售假冒伪劣产品、偷?nbsp| 、骗?nbsp| 、骗汇、走私等违法犯罪活动。整顿建筑市场。整顿和规范金融秩序。严肃财经纪律。加强审计监督工作。规范社会中介机构的行为。强化安全生产管理和安全监察。打破部门、行业垄断和地区封锁,反对地方保护主义,尽快建立和完善全国统一、公平竞争、规范有序的市场体系。重点培育和发展要素市场,尤其是资本市场。大力倡导诚实守信的职业道德,加快建立健全社会信用制度。 加强和改善宏观调控,继续深化财?nbsp| 、金融、投资体制改革。根据经济形势变化,实施相应的宏观经济政策。近期要继续实施积极的财政政策,带动投资和促i消费。全面推进依法理财,强化?nbsp| 收征管,严格财政监督,加快?nbsp| 费改革和预算制度改革,健全?nbsp| 制。调整和优化财政支出结构,逐步建立适应社会主义市场经济要求的公共财政框架。在继续扩大国内需求和抑制通货紧缩趋势的情况下,注意防止可能出现的经济过热和通货膨胀。继续实行稳健的货币政策,适时调节货币供应量,保持人民币币值稳定。按照现代银行制度对国有独资商业银行进行综合改革,发挥政策性银行功能,办好中小金融机构。规范和健全证券市场,保护投资者利益。进一步发展保险业。改善和强化金融监管,实行严格的经营管理考核制度和责任追究制度,改进金融服务,努力提高金融资产质量,防范和化解金融风险。深化投资体制改革,全面实行投资项目法人责任制、招标投标制、工程监理制、合同管理制,健全投资约束机制。 适应经济全球化趋势,进一步提高对外开放水平。一要抓紧做好加入世贸组织的准备和过渡期的各项工作。采取切实措施,转变政府管理方式,提高企业竞争能力。深化改革,健全符合国际通行规则和我国国情的对外经济贸易体制。加快修订和完善相关的法律法规。抓紧培养熟悉国际贸易规则的专业人才。二要进一步发展进出口贸易。继续实施以质取胜、科技兴贸战略。优化出口商品结构,提高高新技术产品比重,增加大宗传统商品的技术含量和附加值,扩大服务贸易规模。规范加工贸易管理,提高加工贸易的增值率。大力推进市场多元化战略,开拓新的出口市场。同时,重点进口国内急需的先进技术、关键设备和重要原材料。积极参与多边贸易体系和国际区域经济合作。三要努力提高利用外资水平。有步骤地推进服务领域对外开放。鼓励外商特别是跨国公司投资高新技术产业、基础设施等领域,以及在我国建立研究开发机构,参与国有企业的改组改造。支持有条件的企业到境外上市。进一步改善投资环境。积极探索采用收购、兼并、风险投资、投资基金和证券投资等形式,扩大利用外资规模。积极引导外资更多地投向中西部地区。要继续办好经济特区、浦东新区。四要实施"走出去"战略。鼓励有比较优势的企业到境外投资,开展加工贸易,合作开发资源,发展国际工程承包,扩大劳务出口等。建立和完善政策支持体系,为企业到境外投资兴业创造条件。同时要加强监管,防止国有资产流失。


VII. Further Deepening Reforms and Opening Wider to the Outside World


To gradually bring the system of socialist market economy to completion and to stimulate structural readjustment and economic growth, we will press ahead with reforms and open wider to the outside world.


Deepening the reform of state-owned enterprises to enable them to compete as equals in the market economy. The key issue in this regard is to accelerate the establishment and improvement of a modern corporate structure. We need to encourage large and medium-sized state-owned enterprises to adopt the share-holding system and to change their operating procedures by listing their shares on the stock market, setting up joint ventures with foreign investors, or holding each others shares. The state must hold a controlling stake in strategic enterprises that concern the national economy and national security, but not necessarily in others. We need to energetically explore effective ways to manage state assets. The legal person system of governance for enterprises must be fully developed and implemented. The supervision and control of state-owned enterprises in particular need to be established and strengthened, and the role of the board of supervisors needs to be fully developed. Enterprises need to further reform their personnel, labor and income distribution systems in order to improve the mechanisms that provide incentives and restraints and to strengthen scientific management. In the course of readjusting the industrial structure, we must adhere to the principles of "advancing in some aspects while retreating in others" and "focusing on certain tasks while putting others aside" and promote strategic readjustment of the overall arrangement of the state-owned sector of the economy. We need to continue to relax control over small and medium-sized state-owned enterprises to enhance their vitality. More efforts need to be made to separate the functions of government from those of enterprises, and the functions of government need to be transformed to reduce administrative oversight and approval. Chambers of commerce, trade associations and other such intermediary agencies are encouraged to play appropriate roles. We need to further reform the management systems of industries such as electricity, railways, civil aviation and telecommunications, and introduce a mechanism for competition. The reforms need to improve the relations between the government and enterprises so as to meet the requirements of a socialist market economy. The ownership system needs to be further improved. We need to uphold the dominance of the public sector of the economy, let the state-owned sector play the leading role, develop various forms of collective undertakings, and support, encourage and guide the healthy development of private and individual sectors of the economy.


Overhauling and regulating market order, and expanding the market system. This is an urgent task to ensure normal operation of the economy and an important measure to strengthen the socialist market economy. We must improve laws and regulations concerning markets and enforce the law strictly. We need to improve oversight mechanisms and employ advanced technology to improve market supervision. We must persist in cracking down on criminal activities such as producing and marketing fake and shoddy goods, tax evasion, tax fraud, obtaining foreign currency through deception, and smuggling. We need to overhaul the construction market, reorganize and standardize the financial order, strengthen financial discipline, tighten audit supervision, standardize the operation of intermediary agencies, break up monopolies by departments or industries, eliminate regional barriers, and improve management and supervision of industrial safety. We need to oppose local protectionism. We need to establish as soon as possible and improve an integrated national market system that is standardized and encourages fair competition. We need to focus our efforts on the development of markets for production factors, especially capital, foster work ethics that stress honesty and trustworthiness, and accelerate the establishment and improvement of a nationwide credit system.


Enhancing macro-control, and deepening reform of the finance, taxation, banking and investment systems. We need to gear our macroeconomic policies to the changing economic situation. In the near future we will continue to implement a proactive fiscal policy to increase investment and stimulate consumption. We need to conduct financial affairs according to the law, strengthen tax collection and management, and improve supervision of government financial affairs. We will step up the reform of replacing fees with taxes and the reform of the budget system, improve the tax system, and adjust and improve the system of fiscal expenditures in order to gradually set up a public finance framework compatible with a socialist market economy. While expanding domestic demand and checking the trend of deflation, we need to be on guard against possible overheated economic growth and inflation. We will continue to implement a prudent monetary policy and regulate money supply in timely fashion to keep the Renminbi stable. We need to carry out a comprehensive reform of the wholly state-owned commercial banks in the light of modern banking principles and bring the role of the policy banks into full play. We need to develop medium-sized and small banking institutions, standardize and improve the securities market, and safeguard the interests of investors. We need to expand the insurance industry, improve supervision of financial institutions, implement a system of strict evaluation of financial operations and management, implement a system of accountability, improve financial services and the quality of financial assets, and guard against and defuse financial risks. We also need to deepen the reform of the investment system, adopt a system under which legal persons are responsible for all investment projects, a public bidding system, a project supervision system, and a contract management system, and strengthen the mechanisms for restraining investment.


Doing a better job in opening to the outside world in the light of economic globalization. First, we should lose no time in preparing for China s entry into the World Trade Organization and fulfilling our tasks in the transitional period. We need to take effective measures to change the methods of government administration and enhance the competitiveness of Chinese enterprises. We need to deepen the reforms in order to establish a system of foreign trade and economic cooperation compatible with international norms and suitable to domestic conditions. We need to step up the work of revising relevant laws and regulations. We also need to train professionals who are well acquainted with regulations governing international trade. Second, we need to expand import and export trade, with emphasis on the export of high-quality goods and technology. We need to optimize the mix of export commodities by expanding the share of high and new technology products, raising the technological content and added &#118alue in traditional commodities exported in large quantities, and expanding the scale of the service sector. We need to standardize the regulation of processing industries and increase the &#118alue-added increment of such trade. We need to vigorously promote market diversification and open new markets for our exports. In import trade we need to emphasize advanced technology, key equipment and important raw and processed materials that are urgently needed in China . We need to take an active part in multilateral trading partnerships and international and regional economic cooperation. Third, we need to make better use of foreign funds. We need to open up the service sector to foreign investment step by step. We need to encourage foreign investors, especially transnational corporations, to invest in high-tech industries and infrastructure, and encourage them to set up research and development centers in China and to participate in the restructuring and renovation of state-owned enterprises. We need to support eligible enterprises to become listed on overseas stock markets and further improve the investment climate. We also need to explore new ways to utilize more foreign investment, such as acquisition, merger, risk investment, investment funds, and investment in securities. We should actively encourage foreign businessmen to invest more in the central and western regions. We should continue to manage the special economic zones and the Pudong New Area well. Fourth, we need to implement a "going global" strategy, encouraging enterprises with comparative advantages to make investments abroad, to establish processing operations, to exploit foreign resources with local partners, to contract for international engineering projects, and to increase the export of labor. We need to provide a supportive policy framework to create favorable conditions for enterprises to establish overseas operations. We also need to strengthen supervision and prevent the loss of state assets.


八、不断改善人民生活,完善社会保障制度


在经济发展的基础上,使人民生活有较大改善,逐步向更加宽裕的小康生活迈进,是今后五年的重要任务。


加快完善社会保障制度。这是关系改革、发展、稳定全局的大事。要确保国有企业下岗职工基本生活费和离退休人员基本养老金按时足额发放。同时,加快形成独立于企业事业单位之外、资金来源多元化、保障制度规范化、管理服务社会化的社会保障体系。精心做好完善城镇社会保障体系的试点工作。完善社会统筹和个人帐户相结合的城镇职工基本养老保险制度。健全失业保险制度,逐步实现国有企业下岗职工基本生活保障和失业保险并轨。加强城市居民最低生活保障制度,关心困难群众的生活。积极推进城镇职工基本医疗保险制度、医疗机构和药品流通体制改革。鼓励有条件的用人单位为职工建立补充养老和医疗保险,并发挥商业保险的作用。建立可靠、稳定的社会保障资金筹措、有效运营和严格管理机制。发展社会福利、社会救济、优抚安置和社会互助等社会保障事业。切实保障妇女、未成年人、老年人、残疾人的合法权益。支持残疾人事业发展。


千方百计扩大就业。 "十五"期间扩大就业的任务十分繁重。在保持较快经济增长的同时,要重视发展有比较优势的劳动密集型产业,特别是发展就业容量大的服务业,积极发展集体企业和私营、个体企业,努力增加就业岗位,拓宽就业渠道。加强社区建设,扩大社区服务。发展灵活多样的就业形式。引导人们转变就业观念,鼓励创业和自谋职业。加强劳动力市场建设,完善就业服务体系,发展职业培训,形成市场导向的就业机制。


不断增加居民收入,特别是增加低收入者的收入。建立健全与经济增长相适应的工资支付制度、最低工资制度和最低工资标准调整机制。各级财政要按照 "一要吃饭、二要建设"的原则,保证机关事业单位工作人员工资和离退休费按时足额发放,逐步改善他们的工资待遇。深化收入分配制度改革。坚持效率优先、兼顾公平原则。认真贯彻按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存的制度,鼓励资本、技术等生产要素参与收益分配。要提高国有企业高层管理人员、技术人员的工资报酬,充分体现他们的劳动价值,可以试行年薪制。但同时要有严格的约束和监督,不能不管工作好坏、企业效益高低,都照拿高薪。对不称职、渎职的人要有相应的制裁措施。对国有上市公司负责人和技术骨干,还可以试行期权制,但不能把国有资产量化给个人。加强对垄断行业个人收入分配的监管。要规范社会分配秩序,强化?nbsp| 收对收入分配的调节功能,防止收入差距过分扩大。


调整消费结构,改善消费环境。着力改善城乡居民的住行条件。大力发展经济适用住房,建立廉租房供应保障体系。积极发展公共交通。加强城市绿化和城乡基础设施建设,改善城乡居民生活环境。发展社区卫生预防保健,努力改善农村卫生服务条件。加强群众性体育设施建设。


VIII. Constantly Raising Living Standards and Improving the Social Security System


It is an important task for the government in the next five years to raise living standards substantially and gradually enable the people to lead a more comfortable life.


Improving the social security system at a faster pace. This is a major issue concerning reform, development and stability. We need to ensure that basic living allowances for laid-off workers from state-owned enterprises and basic pensions for retirees are paid in full and on time. At the same time, we need to accelerate the formation of a social security system that is independent of enterprises or institutions and supported by funds from diversified sources, and that provides standardized safeguards and society-wide services. In addition, we need to conduct meticulous pilot projects aimed at improving the social security system in urban areas. We need to improve the basic old-age insurance system for workers in urban areas, combining contributions from enterprises and institutions with personal accounts. We also need to improve the unemployment insurance system and gradually incorporate the basic cost-of-living allowances for workers laid off by state-owned enterprises into unemployment insurance. We need t o strengthen the system of subsistence allowances for urban residents and take good care of those in dire need. We need to improve the basic medical insurance system for workers in urban areas and carry forward the reform of medical institution and the system for distributing medicines. Institutional employers with available resources are encouraged to set up supplementary old-age and medical insurance programs for their employees and more fully utilize commercial insurance. We must see to it that there are reliable sources and a stable flow of funds for social security, and that these funds are efficiently operated under a strict management mechanism. We need to develop other social security programs, such as social welfare, charities, job placement for demobilized servicemen and social mutual aid. We must safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of women, juveniles, senior citizens and the handicapped; and we need to support the various programs to help the handicapped.


Expanding employment by all possible means. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan period, we face the demanding task of expanding employment. While maintaining a fairly high growth rate for the economy, we must develop labor-intensive industries that have comparative advantages, especially service businesses that can provide large numbers of jobs. We also need to encourage the development of collective, private and individual businesses to create more jobs. We need to improve the infrastructure of communities and expand community services. We need to set up a flexible employment system to provide more forms of employment. We need to help people change their ideas about employment and encourage them to start their own businesses or find jobs for themselves. We need to make greater efforts to develop the labor market, improve employment services, expand vocational training, and form market-oriented employment mechanisms.


Increasing income of urban dwellers, especially those with low incomes. We need to establish a wage payment system, a minimum wage system, and a mechanism for adjusting the minimum wage as the economy grows. Government financial departments at all levels need to ensure that the salaries of government employees and pensions for retirees are paid in full and on time, and gradually increase salaries in accordance with the principle of feeding the people first, then building the country. We need to deepen the reform of the system of income distribution. We should adhere to the principle of giving priority to efficiency with due consideration to fairness. We need to implement an income distribution system in which distribution according to work is the leading principle and other factors are taken into consideration, and we need to include capital, technology and other economic factors in the distribution of economic rewards. We must raise salaries of senior managers and senior technical professionals in state-owned enterprises to fully reflect their contributions and annual salaries may be introduced on a trial basis for them. At the same time we must enforce strict restraint and supervision to prevent those who do poor work from getting high salaries even if the performance of their enterprises is dissatisfactory. There must be penalties for those who are not qualified or even guilty of malfeasance. Stock options may also be initiated on a trial basis for leading executives and key technical professionals in state-controlled companies listed on the stock market, but state assets must not be transferred to individuals. We need to tighten the control and supervision over income distribution in monopoly industries, standardize the distribution of social wealth, and strengthen the regulatory function of tax collection over income distribution to prevent the gap in income distribution from becoming too wide.


Adjusting the consumption pattern and improving the environment for consumption. Efforts should be made to improve housing and transportation conditions for both urban and rural residents. We need to build more affordable and functional housing and establish a system to ensure an adequate supply of low rent housing. We need to energetically develop public transportation. We need to improve urban landscaping and develop infrastructures in urban and rural areas. More efforts should be made to improve the living environment of urban and rural residents. We need to develop preventive medical care for communities, improve public health services in rural areas, and expand public-oriented sports facilities


九、继续实施可持续发展战略


促进人口、资源、环境协调发展,把实施可持续发展战略放在更突出的位置。


坚持计划生育基本国策。要努力保持低生育水平,促进优生优育。重点做好农村和流动人口计划生育工作。建立计划生育利益导向机制,继续实行地方党政领导责任制。加快人口与计划生育法制建设。认真做好老龄人口的工作,发展老龄事业。 保护和合理利用资源。依法保护和合理利用淡水、土地、能源等宝贵资源。逐步建立战略性矿产资源储备和安全供应体系。加强对海洋资源的综合开发利用和保护。积极开展资源回收利用,大力提高资源综合利用率。健全资源的有偿使用制度。维护矿产等资源的国家所有者权益。完善资源保护和利用的法律法规,强化执法监督。


加强生态建设和环境保护。抓好长江上游、黄河上中游等地区的天然林保护工程建设。继续加强东北、华北、西北和长江中下游等重点防护林体系建设。加强天然草原的保护和建设。推进岩溶地区石漠化综合治理。抓紧治理京津地区风沙源。继续开展重点流域、区域、海域的污染治理。综合治理城市污染,搞好城市绿化,使大中城市环境质量明显改善。重视农村污染治理和环境保护。健全环境、气象和地震监测体系,做好防灾减灾工作。


IX. Continuing to Implement the Strategy of Sustainable Development


We need to better coordinate the development of population, resources and the environment, and place more emphasis on the implementation of the strategy of sustainable development.


Adhering to the basic state policy on family planning. We must work hard to sustain the low birth rate and improve prenatal and postnatal care. We need to devote more effort to the management of family planning in rural areas and among the floating population. We should establish awards for family planning and continue to hold leaders of local Party and government organizations responsible for work in this regard. Legislation on population and family planning must be accelerated. We need to expand care for senior citizens.


Protecting natural resources and using them properly. We need to protect and make proper use of valuable resources such as fresh water, farmland and energy in accordance with the law. We must gradually establish a system of reserves for strategically important mineral resources and ensure their safe supply. We need to strengthen the comprehensive development, utilization and conservation of marine resources. We need to increase our recycling of resources in order to utilize our resources more effectively. We need to improve the system of paying compensation for the use of natural resources. We must safeguard the rights and interests of the state as the owner of mineral and other resources. We must improve laws and regulations in this regard, and strengthen law enforcement.


Improving ecological conservation and strengthening environmental protection. Greater efforts need to be exerted to complete projects to protect natural forests, such as those along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River . We need to intensify work on the Northeast, North and Northwest China Shelter Forest Projects and similar projects on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze. We need to do more to protect natural grasslands. We need to step up our efforts to prevent the karst from becoming stony desert. No time can be lost in bringing under control the sources of sand storms affecting the area around Beijing and Tianjin . We need to continue our efforts to control and treat water pollution in important river valleys, regions and sea areas. We need to treat pollution and do more landscaping in large and medium cities with the aim of noticeably improving the quality of the environment there. We also need to pay due attention to prevention and control of environmental pollution in rural areas. We need to improve environmental, meteorological and seismological monitoring to help prevention and reduction of natural disasters.


十、加强精神文明和民主法制建设,加强国防建设


大力加强社会主义精神文明建设。坚持两手抓、两手都要硬的方针。巩固和加强马克思主义的指导地位,用马列主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论教育人民,弘扬爱国主义、集体主义、社会主义精神。在干部中深入开展 "三个代表"重要思想的教育,坚持讲学习、讲政治、讲正气,树立正确的世界观、人生观、价值观。努力建立适应社会主义市场经济发展的思想道德体系,把依法治国和以德治国结合起来。普及科学知识,反对愚昧迷信,倡导文明健康的生活方式。进一步发展文学艺术、新闻出版、广播影视等各项事业。坚持为人民服务、为社会主义服务的方向和百花齐放、百家争鸣的方针,生产出更多更好的精神产品。坚持正确的舆论导向。高度重视新的信息媒体的建设和管理。加强图书馆、文化馆、科技馆、博物馆、档案馆等文化设施建设,加强青少年、老年活动场所建设。继续开展群众性精神文明创建活动。深化文化体制改革,完善文化经济政策,推动有关文化产业发展。整顿和规范文化市场。坚持不懈地开展"扫黄打非"斗争。


积极推进社会主义民主法制建设。发展社会主义民主政治,依法治国,建设社会主义法治国家。继续推进政治体制改革。实行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理和民主监督,保证人民依法享有广泛的权利和自由,尊重和保障人权。继续加强人民代表大会的立法和监督工作。发挥人民政协的政治协商、民主监督、参政议政作用。完善适应社会主义市场经济体制的法律体系。各级政府要自觉接受同级人大的监督,主动听取政协的意见。推进政府工作法制化,依法行政,从严治政。深化司法改革,严格执法,公正司法。深入开展反腐败斗争,加强廉政建设。强化法制教育,增强全体公民的法制观念。加强政法系统基础设施建设,提高政法队伍素质。


进一步落实党的民族政策,坚持和完善民族区域自治制度,发展平等、团结、互助的社会主义民族关系。结合西部大开发,加大支持力度,加快少数民族和民族地区经济与社会全面发展,促进各民族共同繁荣和进步。全面贯彻党的宗教政策,保障公民宗教信仰自由,依法管理宗教事务,积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应。认真贯彻党的侨务政策,充分发挥海外侨胞在祖国现代化建设与和平统一大业中的作用。


进一步维护社会稳定。正确处理新时期人民内部矛盾。重视群众的来信来访。搞好社会治安综合治理,打击各种危害社会与国家安全的犯罪活动。依法打击民族分裂活动、宗教极端势力、暴力恐怖活动、邪教和利用宗教进行非法活动。继续开展同 "法轮功"邪教组织的斗争,深入揭露和批判其反人类、反社会、反科学的邪教本质,及其沦为国内外敌对势力反对我国社会主义政权工具的反动面目,依法严厉打击极少数违法犯罪分子,坚持不懈地团结、教育、挽救绝大多数被蒙骗的群众。


加强国防和军队建设。这是国家安全和现代化建设的重要保证。在集中力量发展国民经济的同时,必须积极推进国防建设,增强国防实力。要大力加强军队思想政治建设,确保党对军队的绝对领导和军队建设的正确方向。认真贯彻新时期积极防御的战略方针,坚持改革创新,坚持质量建军,科技强军,勤俭建军,依法治军,走有中国特色的精兵之路,全面提高军队革命化、现代化、正规化建设水平。强化全民国防意识,健全国防动员体制。加强国防科研,推进国防科技工业调整、改革,发展新型武器装备,增强现代技术特别是高技术条件下防卫作战的能力,做好应付各种复杂情况的准备。


X. Promoting Spiritual Civilization, Improving Democracy and the Legal System, and Strengthening National Defense


Vigorously promoting socialist spiritual civilization. We need to follow the principle of "doing two jobs at once and attaching equal importance to each." We need to consolidate and strengthen the guiding role of Marxism and educate the people in Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory. We need to promote patriotism, collectivism and socialism. We need to continue education of our cadres in the important principle of " Three Represents" (The Communist Party of China represents the requirement to develop advanced productive forces, an orientation towards advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people in China.) and foster the spirit of studying hard, being politically-minded, and being honest and upright. Our cadres should have a correct outlook on the world and life and have correct &#118alues. We need to work hard to foster ideas and ethics appropriate for a socialist market economy. We need to administer the country in accordance with moral principles as well as the law. We need to disseminate scientific knowledge, combat ignorance and superstition, and encourage healthy lifestyles. We need to further develop various cultural undertakings, such as literature and art, journalism and publishing, and radio, film and television. We should adhere to the principles of serving the people and socialism and of "letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend. " We need to produce more and better cultural and intellectual works. We need to maintain the correct orientation of public opinion, and place strong emphasis on the establishment and management of new information media. We need to build more libraries, cultural centers, science and technology centers, museums, archives, and recreation centers for juveniles and senior citizens. Mass participation activities should be continued to promote cultural and ethical progress. We need to deepen reform of the system for managing cultural undertakings, improve the economic policies concerning cultural undertakings, and promote the development of industries related to culture. We need to organize and standardize the cultural market and persist in the fight against pornographic and other illegal products.


Energetically improving socialist democracy and the legal system. We need to develop a socialist democratic political system, govern the country according to the law, and make China a socialist country ruled by law. We need to press ahead with reform of the political system; implement democratic elections, decision- making, management and supervision; protect the extensive rights and freedoms of the people as prescribed by law; and respect and guarantee human rights. We need to continue to strengthen the legislative and supervisory role of the Peoples Congress, and expand the role of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference in political consultation, democratic supervision, and administration and deliberation of state affairs. We need to bring the legal system into line with a socialist market economy. Governments at all levels must conscientiously subject themselves to the supervision of the peoples congresses at corresponding levels and consult with the CPPCC. They must govern in accordance with the law and be strict in performing official duties. We need to deepen the reform of the judicial system, strictly enforce laws, and administer justice impartially. We need to put greater efforts into combating corruption and building a clean government. We need to strengthen legal education and raise the awareness of law among all citizens. We need to strengthen development of legal infrastructures, and improve the qualifications of procuratorial, judicial and public security officers.


We need to make further efforts to implement the Partys policy on ethnic groups, adhere to and build upon the system of the autonomy of ethnic minority regions, and develop socialist relationships among all ethnic groups characterized by equality, unity and mutual assistance. As part of our efforts to develop the western region of China , we need to give more support to accelerate the all-round economic and social development of the areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, and strive for common prosperity and progress of all ethnic groups. We need to implement the Partys policy on religions in a comprehensive manner, protect the peoples freedom of religious belief, administer religious affairs in accordance with the law, and help the various religions adapt to socialist society. We need to conscientiously implement the Partys policy on affairs concerning overseas Chinese and bring their role into full play in the modernization drive and the great cause of peaceful reunification of the country.


We need to better safeguard social stability and correctly handle conflicts among the people in the new era. We should pay close attention to correspondence from the people and their personal visits. We need to improve public order through comprehensive measures and crack down on criminal activities that pose a threat to social order and national security. We must use legal means to combat ethnic separatist activities, religious extremist forces, violent and terrorist activities, cults, and illegal activities carried out under the guise of religion. We need to continue our campaign against the Falun Gong cult, and further expose and condemn the anti-human, anti-social and anti-science nature of the cult, which has become a tool for domestic and overseas forces hostile to our socialist government. We need to mete out severe punishment to the small number of criminals while making unremitting efforts to unite, educate and rescue the vast majority of people who have been taken in.


Strengthening national defense and building up the armed services. This is an important guarantee for the security of the state and the success of the modernization drive. As we focus our efforts on developing the national economy, we must also strengthen our national defense and increase our defense capabilities. We need to strengthen ideological and political work among servicemen, ensure the absolute leadership of the Party over the armed forces, and guide the development of the armed forces in the correct direction. We need to work conscientiously to implement the military strategy of active defense in the new era; persist in reform and innovation; strengthen the armed forces through science and technology, with an emphasis on quality and thrift; run the armed forces by law; and streamline the armed forces in a Chinese way in order to build a more modernized, standardized revolutionary army. We need to raise the peoples awareness of the importance of national defense and improve the mobilization system. We need to strengthen defense-related scientific research, reform and restructure science, technology and industry related to national defense, develop new weapons and equipment, utilize modern technology, especially high technology to improve the defense capabilities and combat effectiveness of the armed forces, and ensure their preparedness for any contingency.


各位代表!进入新世纪,我们将继续按照 "一国两制"方针和基本法,全力支持香港、澳门特别行政区行政长官和政府依法施政,加强港澳与内地的经济合作及交流,维护香港、澳门的长期繁荣稳定。


尽早解决台湾问题,实现祖国完全统一,是中华儿女的共同期盼,是我们面临的重大任务。我们将继续执行 " 和平统一、一国两制"的基本方针和江泽民主席提出的八项主张,与广大台湾同胞一道,坚决阻止任何制造分裂的图谋,尽一切可能争取和平统一。我们将坚持一个中国原则,在此基础上继续推动两岸对话与谈判,发展两岸经济文化交流和人员往来。我们坚信,经过中华儿女的不懈奋斗,祖国统一大业必将早日完成。 面对世界多极化和经济全球化深入发展的国际形势,我们将始终不渝地奉行独立自主的和平外交政策,在和平共处五项原则的基础上,进一步同世界各国发展友好合作关系,争取一个长期的国际和平环境和良好的周边环境。中国将积极参与国际事务,为维护世界和平、促进国际合作、实现共同发展,为推动建立和平稳定、公正合理的国际政治经济新秩序,作出新的贡献。


各位代表!2001年是进入新世纪、实施 "十五" 计划的第一年。全面贯彻党的十五届五中全会和中央经济工作会议精神,做好今年的各项工作,对于实施"十五" 计划起好步、开好局,至关重要。要坚持扩大国内需求的方针,实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策。继续发行1500亿元长期建设国债,集中用于在建项目和西部开发项目。同时,适当增加机关事业单位人员工资,提高城镇低收入者收入。把加强农业基础地位和增加农民收入放在经济工作首位,采取有力措施切实解决当前农业、农村中存在的突出问题。巩固和扩大国有企业改革成果,在建立现代企业制度、转换经营机制和加强科学管理上狠下功夫。抓紧做好加入世贸组织的各项准备工作。加快完善社会保障体系,多渠道扩大就业,改善人民生活。要把大力整顿和规范市场经济秩序,作为一项紧迫的重要任务。加强精神文明和民主法制建设。继续处理好改革、发展、稳定的关系,搞好社会治安综合治理,维护社会稳定。支持北京市申办奥运。要统筹兼顾,乘势前进,保持经济和社会发展的良好势头。 各位代表!我们已经跨进了21世纪,迈上了向现代化建设第三步战略目标进军的新征程。任何艰难险阻都挡不住中国人民胜利前进的步伐!让我们紧密团结在以江泽民同志为核心的党中央周围,高举邓小平理论伟大旗帜,坚持党的基本路线,以"三个代表"重要思想为指导,振奋精神,扎实工作,为实现"十五"计划目标,为把我国建设成为富强民主文明的社会主义现代化国家而努力奋斗!(完)


Fellow Deputies,


As we enter the new century, we will continue to adhere to the principle of "one country, two systems" and the basic laws of Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions. Economic cooperation and exchanges of the mainland with Hong Kong and Macao should be strengthened. We will render full support to the chief executives and governments of Hong Kong and Macao in their efforts to govern the regions in accordance with the law, and defend the long-term prosperity and stability of Hong Kong and Macao .


An early settlement of the Taiwan issue and the accomplishment of national reunification are the shared aspirations of the entire Chinese nation and an enormous task we are now facing. We will continue to follow the basic principles of "peaceful reunification " and "one country, two systems" and the eight-point proposal put forward by President Jiang Zemin. We will, together with the vast majority of our compatriots in Taiwan , resolutely put a stop to any separatist attempt and do our utmost to achieve peaceful reunification. We will adhere to the one China principle, continue to push for cross-Straits dialogue and negotiations on that basis, and promote economic, cultural and personnel exchanges between the two sides. We are confident that with the unremitting efforts of all Chinese people, the great cause of national reunification will surely be accomplished at an early date.


In the face of an international situation characterized by growing political multipolarization and economic globalization, we will, as always, pursue an independent foreign policy of peace, develop friendly relations and cooperation with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and strive for a long-term peaceful international environment and good relations with our neighbors. China will take an active part in international affairs and make fresh contributions to the maintenance of world peace, the promotion of international cooperation, the achievement of common development, and the establishment of a peaceful, stable, just and reasonable new international political and economic order.


Fellow Deputies,


The year 2001 is the first year into the new century and the first year for the implementation of the Tenth Five-Year Plan. To ensure a good beginning for this endeavor, it is crucial to act in the spirit of the Fifth Plenary Session of the Partys Fifteenth Central Committee and its conference on economic work, and do all aspects of this years work well. We need to adhere to the policy of expanding domestic demand and continue to follow a proactive fiscal policy and a prudent monetary policy. We will issue 150 billion yuan of long-term treasury bonds, and invest the ensuing revenue in projects under construction and development projects in the western region. We will raise staff salaries of government organizations and institutions at an appropriate rate. We will also increase the earnings of urban residents with low incomes. We need to put strengthening agriculture as the foundation of the economy and increasing farmers incomes on the top of our economic agenda, and take effective measures to solve outstanding agricultural and other problems presently facing rural areas. We need to consolidate and build on our achievements in the reform of state-owned enterprises, and pay special attention to establishing a modern corporate structure, transforming operational mechanisms and intensifying scientific management. We need to quicken preparation for accession into the World Trade Organization. We need to improve the social security system, create more jobs by various means, and raise peoples living standards. An important and pressing task is to make great efforts in reorganizing and standardizing the order of the market economy. We need to promote spiritual civilization and improve democracy and the legal system. We need to continue to handle the relationship between reform, development and stability properly, improve all facets of public security and maintain social stability. We fully support Beijing s bid to host the Olympic Games. We need to make overall plans by taking all factors into consideration and avail ourselves of the favorable circumstances in order to sustain our forward momentum in economic and social development.


Fellow Deputies,


We have already entered the 21st century and started to march toward the strategic objectives of the third stage in the modernization drive. No difficulties or hardships can deter we Chinese people in our pursuit of success. Let us rally closely around the Party Central Committee with Comrade Jiang Zemin at its core, hold high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, adhere to the Partys basic line, and follow the guidance of the important principle of the "Three Represents". Let us bestir ourselves and work diligently toward the objectives set forth in the Tenth Five-Year Plan for the establishment of a strong, prosperous, democratic, and culturally advanced modern socialist country!


 

·上篇文章:关于国民经济和社会发展第十个五年计划纲要的报告中英对照(上)
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