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中华人民共和国宪法英译本(2)

    来源:翻译界  浏览次数:3769  添加时间:2008/4/25
第十一条 在法律规定范围内的城乡劳动者个体经济,是社会主义公有制经济的补充。国家保护个体经济的合法的权利和利益。 Article 11 The individual economy of urban and rural working people, operating within the limits prescribed by law, is a complement to the socialist public economy. The state protects the lawful rights and interests of the individual economy.
国家通过行政管理,指导、帮助和监督个体经济。 The state guides, assists and supervises the individual economy by administrative control.
第十二条 社会主义的公共财产神圣不可侵犯。 Article 12 Socialist public property is inviolable.
国家保护社会主义的公共财产。禁止任何组织或者个人用任何手段侵占或者破坏国家的和集体的财产。 The state protects socialist public property. Appropriation or damaging of state or collective property by any organization or individual by whatever means is prohibited.
第十三条 国家保护公民的合法的收入、储蓄、房屋和其他合法财产的所有权。 Article 13 The state protects the right of citizens to own lawfully earned income, savings, houses and other lawful property.
国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产的继承权。 The state protects according to law the right of citizens to inherit private property.
第十四条 国家通过提高劳动者的积极性和技术水平,先进的科学技术,完善经济管理体制和企业经营管理制度,实行各种形式的社会主义责任制,改进劳动组织,以不断提高劳动生产率和经济效益,发展社会生产力。 Article 14 The state continuously raises labour productivity, improves economic results and develops the productive forces by enhancing the enthusiasm of the working people, raising the level of their technical skill, disseminating advanced science and technology, improving the systems of economic administration and enterprise operation and management, instituting the socialist system of responsibility in various forms and improving the organization of work.
国家厉行节约,反对浪费。 The state practises strict economy and combats waste.
国家合理安排积累和消费,兼顾国家、集体和个人的利益,在发展生产的基础上,逐步改善人民的物质生活和文化生活。 The state properly apportions accumulation and consumption, concerns itself with the interests of the collective and the individual as well as of the state and, on the basis of expanded production, gradually improves the material and cultural life of the people.
第十五条 国家在社会主义公有制基础上实行计划经济。国家通过经济计划的综合平衡和市场调节的辅助作用,保证国民经济按比例地协调发展。 Article 15 The state practises planned economy on the basis of socialist public ownership. It ensures the proportionate and coordinated growth of the national economy through overall balancing by economic planning and the supplementary role of regulation by the market.
禁止任何组织或者个人扰乱社会经济秩序,破坏国家经济计划。 Disturbance of the socioeconomic order or disruption of the state economic plan by any organization or individual is prohibited.
第十六条 国营企业在服从国家的统一领导和全面完成国家计划的前提下,在法律规定的范围内,有经营管理的自主权。 Article 16 State enterprises have decision-making power with regard to operation and management within the limits prescribed by law, on condition that they submit to unified leadership by the state and fulfil all their obligations under the state plan.
国营企业依照法律规定,通过职工代表大会和其他形式,实行民主管理。 State enterprises practise democratic management through congresses of workers and staff and in other ways in accordance with the law.
第十七条 集体经济组织在接受国家计划指导和遵守有关法律的前提下,有独立进行经济活动的自主权。 Article 17 Collective economic organizations have decision-making power in conducting independent economic activities, on condition that they accept the guidance of the state plan and abide by the relevant laws.
集体经济组织依照法律规定实行民主管理,由它的全体劳动者选举和罢免管理人员,决定经营管理的重大问题。 Collective economic organizations practise democratic management in accordance with the law. The entire body of their workers elects or removes their managerial personnel and decides on major issues concerning operation and management.
第十八条 中华人民共和国允许外国的企业和其他经济组织或者个人依照中华人民共和国法律的规定在中国投资,同中国的企业或者其他经济组织进行各种形式的经济合作。 Article 18 The People's Republic of China permits foreign enterprises, other foreign economic organizations and individual foreigners to invest in China and to enter into various forms of economic cooperation with Chinese enterprises and other Chinese economic organizations in accordance with the law of the People's Republic of China.
在中国境内的外国企业和其他外国经济组织以及中外合资经营的企业,都必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律。它们的合法的权利和利益受中华人民共和国法律的保护。 All foreign enterprises, other foreign economic organizations as well as Chinese-foreign joint ventures within Chinese territory shall abide by the law of the People's Republic of China. Their lawful rights and interests are protected by the law of the People's Republic of China.
第十九条 国家发展社会主义的教育事业,提高全国人民的科学文化水平。 Article 19 The state undertakes the development of socialist education and works to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.
国家举办各种学校,普及初等义务教育,发展中等教育、职业教育和高等教育,并且发展学前教育。 The state establishes and administers schools of various types, universalizes compulsory primary education and promotes secondary, vocational and higher education as well as preschool education.
国家发展各种教育设施,扫除文盲,对工人、农民、国家工作人员和其他劳动者进行政治、文化、科学、技术、业务的教育,鼓励自学成才。 The state develops educational facilities in order to eliminate illiteracy and provide political, scientific, technical and professional education as well as general education for workers, peasants, state functionaries and other working people. It encourages people to become educated through independent study.
国家鼓励集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和其他社会力量依照法律规定举办各种教育事业。 The state encourages the collective economic organizations, state enterprises and institutions and other sectors of society to establish educational institutions of various types in accordance with the law.
国家全国通用的普通话。 The state promotes the nationwide use of Putonghua (common speech based on Beijing pronunciation).
第二十条 国家发展自然科学和社会科学事业,普及科学和技术知识,奖励科学研究成果和技术发明创造。 Article 20 The state promotes the development of the natural and social sciences, disseminates knowledge of science and technology, and commends and rewards achievements in scientific research as well as technological innovations and inventions.
第二十一条 国家发展医疗卫生事业,发展现代医药和我国传统医药,鼓励和支持农村集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和街道组织举办各种医疗卫生设施,开展群众性的卫生活动,保护人民健康。 Article 21 The state develops medical and health services, promotes modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, encourages and supports the setting up of various medical and health facilities by the rural economic collectives, state enterprises and institutions and neighbourhood organizations, and promotes health and sanitation activities of a mass character, all for the protection of the people's health.
国家发展体育事业,开展群众性的体育活动,增强人民体质。 The state develops physical culture and promotes mass sports activities to improve the people's physical fitness.
第二十二条 国家发展为人民服务、为社会主义服务的文学艺术事业、新闻广播电视事业、出版发行事业、图书馆博物馆文化馆和其他文化事业,开展群众性的文化活动。 Article 22 The state promotes the development of art and literature, the press, radio and television broadcasting, publishing and distribution services, libraries, museums, cultural centres and other cultural undertakings that serve the people and socialism, and it sponsors mass cultural activities.
国家保护名胜古迹、珍贵文物和其他重要历史文化遗产。 The state protects sites of scenic and historical interest, valuable cultural monuments and relics and other significant items of China's historical and cultural heritage.
第二十三条 国家培养为社会主义服务的各种专业人才,扩大知识分子的队伍,创造条件,充分发挥他们在社会主义现代化建设中的作用。 Article 23 The state trains specialized personnel in all fields who serve socialism, expands the ranks of intellectuals and creates conditions to give full scope to their role in socialist modernization.
第二十四条 国家通过普及理想教育、道德教育、文化教育、纪律和法制教育,通过在城乡不同范围的群众中制定和执行各种守则、公约,加强社会主义精神文明的建设。 Article 24 The state strengthens the building of a socialist society with an advanced culture and ideology by promoting education in high ideals, ethics, general knowledge, discipline and legality, and by promoting the formulation and observance of rules of conduct and common pledges by various sections of the people in urban and rural areas.
国家提倡爱祖国、爱人民、爱劳动、爱科学、爱社会主义的公德,在人民中进行爱国主义、集体主义和国际主义、共产主义的教育,进行辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的教育,反对资本主义的、封建主义的和其他的腐朽思想。 The state advocates the civic virtues of love of the motherland, of the people, of labour, of science and of socialism. It conducts education among the people in patriotism and collectivism, in internationalism and communism and in dialectical and historical materialism, to combat capitalist, feudal and other decadent ideas.
第二十五条 国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应。 Article 25 The state promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development.
第二十六条 国家保护和改善生活环境和生态环境,防治污染和其他公害。 Article 26 The state protects and improves the environment in which people live and the ecological environment. It prevents and controls pollution and other public hazards.
国家组织和鼓励植树造林,保护林木。 The state organizes and encourages afforestation and the protection of forests.
第二十七条 一切国家机关实行精简的原则,实行工作责任制,实行工作人员的培训和考核制度,不断提高工作质量和工作效率,反对官僚主义。 Article 27 All state organs carry out the principle of simple and efficient administration, the system of responsibility for work and the system of training functionaries and appraising their performance in order constantly to improve the quality of work and efficiency and combat bureaucratism.
一切国家机关和国家工作人员必须依靠人民的支持,经常保持同人民的密切联系,倾听人民的意见和建议,接受人民的监督,努力为人民服务。 All state organs and functionaries must rely on the support of the people, keep in close touch with them, heed their opinions and suggestions, accept their supervision and do their best to serve them.
第二十八条 国家维护社会秩序,镇压叛国和其他反革命的活动,制裁危害社会治安、破坏社会主义经济和其他犯罪的活动,惩办和改造犯罪分子。 Article 28 The state maintains public order and suppresses treasonable and other counter-revolutionary activities; it penalizes criminal activities that endanger public security and disrupt the socialist economy as well as other criminal activities; and it punishes and reforms criminals.
第二十九条 中华人民共和国的武装力量属于人民。 Article 29 The armed forces of the People's Republic of China belong to the people.
它的任务是巩固国防,抵抗侵略,保卫祖国,保卫人民的和平劳动,参加国家建设事业,努力为人民服务。 Their tasks are to strengthen national defence, resist aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people's peaceful labour, participate in national reconstruction and do their best to serve the people.
国家加强武装力量的革命化、现代化、正规化的建设,增强国防力量。 The state strengthens the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the armed forces in order to increase national defence capability.
第三十条 中华人民共和国的行政区域划分如下: Article 30 The administrative division of the People's Republic of China is as follows:
(一)全国分为省、自治区、直辖市; (1) The country is divided into provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government;
(二)省、自治区分为自治州、县、自治县、市; (2) Provinces and autonomous regions are divided into autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties, and cities;
(三)县、自治县分为乡、民族乡、镇。 (3) Counties and autonomous counties are divided into townships, nationality townships, and towns.
直辖市和较大的市分为区、县。自治州分为县、自治县、市。 Municipalities directly under the Central Government and other large cities are divided into districts and counties. Autonomous prefectures are divided into counties, autonomous counties, and cities.
自治区、自治州、自治县都是民族自治地方。 All autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are national autonomous areas.
第三十一条 国家在必要时得设立特别行政区。在特别行政区内实行的制度按照具体情况由全国人民代表大会以法律规定。 Article 31 The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in the light of specific conditions.
第三十二条 中华人民共和国保护在中国境内的外国人的合法权利和利益,在中国境内的外国人必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律。 Article 32 The People's Republic of China protects the lawful rights and interests of foreigners within Chinese territory; foreigners on Chinese territory must abide by the laws of the People's Republic of China.
中华人民共和国对于因为政治原因要求避难的外国人,可以给予受庇护的权利。 The People's Republic of China may grant asylum to foreigners who request it for political reasons.
第二章 公民的基本权利和义务 Chapter II The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens
第三十三条 凡具有中华人民共和国国籍的人都是中华人民共和国公民。 Article 33 All persons holding the nationality of the People's Republic of China are citizens of the People's Republic of China.
中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一律平等。 All citizens of the People's Republic of China are equal before the law.
任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。 Every citizen is entitled to the rights and at the same time must perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and the law.
第三十四条 中华人民共和国年满十八周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。 Article 34 All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of ethnic status, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights according to law.
第三十五条 中华人民共和国公民有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由。 Article 35 Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration.
第三十六条 中华人民共和国公民有宗教信仰自由。 Article 36 Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of religious belief.
任何国家机关、社会团体和个人不得强制公民信仰宗教或者不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的公民和不信仰宗教的公民。 No state organ, public organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion.
国家保护正常的宗教活动。任何人不得利用宗教进行破坏社会秩序、损害公民身体健康、妨碍国家教育制度的活动。 The state protects normal religious activities. No one may make use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational system of the state.
宗教团体和宗教事务不受外国势力的支配。 Religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign domination.
第三十七条 中华人民共和国公民的人身自由不受侵犯。 Article 37 Freedom of the person of citizens of the People's Republic of China is inviolable.
任何公民,非经人民检察院批准或者决定或者人民法院决定,并由公安机关执行,不受逮捕。 No citizen may be arrested except with the approval or by decision of a people's procuratorate or by decision of a people's court, and arrests must be made by a public security organ.
禁止非法拘禁和以其他方法非法剥夺或者限制公民的人身自由,禁止非法搜查公民的身体。 Unlawful detention or deprivation or restriction of citizens freedom of the person by other means is prohibited, and unlawful search of the person of citizens is prohibited.
第三十八条 中华人民共和国公民的人格尊严不受侵犯。禁止用任何方法对公民进行侮辱、诽谤和诬告陷害。 Article 38 The personal dignity of citizens of the People's Republic of China is inviolable. Insult, libel, false accusation or false incrimination directed against citizens by any means is prohibited.
第三十九条 中华人民共和国公民的住宅不受侵犯。禁止非法搜查或者非法侵入公民的住宅。 Article 39 The residences of citizens of the People's Republic of China are inviolable. Unlawful search of, or intrusion into, a citizen's residence is prohibited.
第四十条 中华人民共和国公民的通信自由和通信秘密受法律的保护。除因国家安全或者追查刑事犯罪的需要,由公安机关或者检察机关依照法律规定的程序对通信进行检查外,任何组织或者个人不得以任何理由侵犯公民的通信自由和通信秘密。 Article 40 Freedom and privacy of correspondence of citizens of the People's Republic of China are protected by law. No organization or individual may, on any ground, infringe upon citizens freedom and privacy of correspondence, except in cases where, to meet the needs of state security or of criminal investigation, public security or procuratorial organs are permitted to censor correspondence in accordance with procedures prescribed by law.
第四十一条 中华人民共和国公民对于任何国家机关和国家工作人员,有提出批评和建议的权利;对于任何国家机关和国家工作人员的违法失职行为,有向有关国家机关提出申诉、控告或者检举的权利,但是不得捏造或者歪曲事实进行诬告陷害。 Article 41 Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right to criticize and make suggestions regarding any state organ or functionary. Citizens have the right to make to relevant state organs complaints or charges against, or exposures of, any state organ or functionary for violation of the law or dereliction of duty; but fabrication or distortion of facts for purposes of libel or false incrimination is prohibited.
对于公民的申诉、控告或者检举,有关国家机关必须查清事实,负责处理。 The state organ concerned must deal with complaints, charges or exposures made by citizens in a responsible manner after ascertaining the facts.
任何人不得压制和打击报复。 No one may suppress such complaints, charges and exposures or retaliate against the citizens making them.
由于国家机关和国家工作人员侵犯公民权利而受到损失的人,有依照法律规定取得赔偿的权利。 Citizens who have suffered losses as a result of infringement of their civic rights by any state organ or functionary have the right to compensation in accordance with the law.
第四十二条 中华人民共和国公民有劳动的权利和义务。 Article 42 Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right as well as the duty to work.
国家通过各种途径,创造劳动就业条件,加强劳动保护,改善劳动条件,并在发展生产的基础上,提高劳动报酬和福利待遇。 Through various channels, the state creates conditions for employment, enhances occupational safety and health, improves working conditions and, on the basis of expanded production, increases remuneration for work and welfare benefits.
劳动是一切有劳动能力的公民的光荣职责。国营企业和城乡集体经济组织的劳动者都应当以国家主人翁的态度对待自己的劳动。 Work is a matter of honour for every citizen who is able to work. All working people in state enterprises and in urban and rural economic collectives should approach their work as the masters of the country that they are.
国家提倡社会主义劳动竞赛,奖励劳动模范和先进工作者。国家提倡公民从事义务劳动。 The state promotes socialist labour emulation, and commends and rewards model and advanced workers. The state encourages citizens to take part in voluntary labour.
国家对就业前的公民进行必要的劳动就业训练。 The state provides necessary vocational training for citizens before they are employed.
第四十三条 中华人民共和国劳动者有休息的权利。 Article 43 Working people in the People's Republic of China have the right to rest.
国家发展劳动者休息和休养的设施,规定职工的工作时间和休假制度。 The state expands facilities for the rest and recuperation of the working people and prescribes working hours and vacations for workers and staff.

·上篇文章:中华人民共和国宪法英译本(1)
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