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中华人民共和国宪法英译本(3)

    来源:翻译界  浏览次数:3658  添加时间:2008/4/25
第四十四条 国家依照法律规定实行企业事业组织的职工和国家机关工作人员的退休制度。退休人员的生活受到国家和社会的保障。 Article 44 The state applies the system of retirement for workers and staff of enterprises and institutions and for functionaries of organs of state according to law. The livelihood of retired personnel is ensured by the state and society.
第四十五条 中华人民共和国公民在年老、疾病或者丧失劳动能力的情况下,有从国家和社会获得物质帮助的权利。 Article 45 Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right to material assistance from the state and society when they are old, ill or disabled.
国家发展为公民享受这些权利所需要的社会保险、社会救济和医疗卫生事业。 The state develops social insurance, social relief and medical and health services that are required for citizens to enjoy this right.
国家和社会保障残废军人的生活,抚恤烈士家属,优待军人家属。 The state and society ensure the livelihood of disabled members of the armed forces, provide pensions to the families of martyrs and give preferential treatment to the families of military personnel.
国家和社会帮助安排盲、聋、哑和其他有残疾的公民的劳动、生活和教育。 The state and society help make arrangements for the work, livelihood and education of the blind, deaf-mutes and other handicapped citizens.
第四十六条 中华人民共和国公民有受教育的权利和义务。 Article 46 Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the duty as well as the right to receive education.
国家培养青年、少年、儿童在品德、智力、体质等方面全面发展。 The state promotes the all-round development of children and young people, morally, intellectually and physically.
第四十七条 中华人民共和国公民有进行科学研究、文学艺术创作和其他文化活动的自由。国家对于从事教育、科学、技术、文学、艺术和其他文化事业的公民的有益于人民的创造性工作,给以鼓励和帮助。 Article 47 Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the freedom to engage in scientific research, literary and artistic creation and other cultural pursuits. The state encourages and assists creative endeavors conducive to the interests of the people that are made by citizens engaged in education, science, technology, literature, art and other cultural work.
第四十八条 中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。 Article 48 Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life.
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。 The state protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women.
第四十九条 婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。 Article 49 Marriage, the family and mother and child are protected by the state.
夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。 Both husband and wife have the duty to practise family planning.
父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。 Parents have the duty to rear and educate their children who are minors, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents. Violation of the freedom of marriage is prohibited.
禁止破坏婚姻自由,禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。 Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited.
第五十条 中华人民共和国保护华侨的正当的权利和利益,保护归侨和侨眷的合法的权利和利益。 Article 50 The People's Republic of China protects the legitimate rights and interests of Chinese nationals residing abroad and protects the lawful rights and interests of returned overseas Chinese and of the family members of Chinese nationals residing abroad.
第五十一条 中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。 Article 51 Citizens of the People's Republic of China, in exercising their freedoms and rights, may not infringe upon the interests of the state, of society or of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens.
第五十二条 中华人民共和国公民有维护国家统一和全国各民族团结的义务。 Article 52 It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to safeguard the unification of the country and the unity of all its nationalities.
第五十三条 中华人民共和国公民必须遵守宪法和法律,保守国家秘密,爱护公共财产,遵守劳动纪律,遵守公共秩序,尊重社会公德。 Article 53 Citizens of the People's Republic of China must abide by the Constitution and the law, keep state secrets, protect public property, observe labour discipline and public order and respect social ethics.
第五十四条 中华人民共和国公民有维护祖国的安全、荣誉和利益的义务,不得有危害祖国的安全、荣誉和利益的行为。 Article 54 It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to safeguard the security, honour and interests of the motherland; they must not commit acts detrimental to the security, honour and interests of the motherland.
第五十五条 保卫祖国、抵抗侵略是中华人民共和国每一个公民的神圣职责。 Article 55 It is the sacred duty of every citizen of the People's Republic of China to defend the motherland and resist aggression.
依照法律服兵役和参加民兵组织是中华人民共和国公民的光荣义务。 It is the honorable duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to perform military service and join the militia in accordance with the law.
第五十六条 中华人民共和国公民有依照法律纳税的义务。 Article 56 It is duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to pay taxes in accordance with the law.
第三章 国家机构 第一节 全国人民代表大会 Chapter III The Structure of the State Section 1 The National People's Congress
第五十七条 中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会是最高国家权力机关。它的常设机关是全国人民代表大会常务委员会。 Article 57 The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China is the highest organ of state power. Its permanent body is the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
第五十八条 全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使国家立法权。 Article 58 The National People's Congress and its Standing Committee exercise the legislative power of the state.
第五十九条 全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市和军队选出的代表组成。各少数民族都应当有适当名额的代表。 Article 59 The National People's Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.
全国人民代表大会代表的选举由全国人民代表大会常务委员会主持。 Election of deputies to the National People's Congress is conducted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
全国人民代表大会代表名额和代表产生办法由法律规定。 The number of deputies to the National People's Congress and the procedure of their election are prescribed by law.
第六十条 全国人民代表大会每届任期五年。 Article 60 The National People's Congress is elected for a term of five years.
全国人民代表大会任期届满的两个月以前,全国人民代表大会常务委员会必须完成下届全国人民代表大会代表的选举。 The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress must ensure the completion of election of deputies to the succeeding National People's Congress two months prior to the expiration of the term of office of the current National People's Congress.
如果遇到不能进行选举的非常情况,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会以全体组成人员的三分之二以上的多数通过,可以推迟选举,延长本届全国人民代表大会的任期。 Should extraordinary circumstances prevent such an election, it may be postponed and the term of office of the current National People's Congress extended by the decision of a vote of more than two-thirds of all those on the Standing Committee of the current National People's Congress.
在非常情况结束后一年内,必须完成下届全国人民代表大会代表的选举。 The election of deputies to the succeeding National People's Congress must be completed within one year after the termination of such extraordinary circumstances.
第六十一条 全国人民代表大会会议每年举行一次,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会召集。如果全国人民代表大会常务委员会认为必要,或者有五分之一以上的全国人民代表大会代表提议,可以临时召集全国人民代表大会会议。 Article 61 The National People's Congress meets in session once a year and is convened by its Standing Committee. A session of the National People's Congress may be convened at any time the Standing Committee deems it necessary or when more than one-fifth of the deputies to the National People's Congress so propose.
全国人民代表大会举行会议的时候,选举主席团主持会议。 When the National People's Congress meets, it elects a Presidium to conduct its session.
第六十二条 全国人民代表大会行使下列职权: Article 62 The National People's Congress exercises the following functions and powers:
(一)修改宪法; (1) to amend the Constitution;
(二)监督宪法的实施; (2) to supervise the enforcement of the Constitution;
(三)制定和修改刑事、民事、国家机构的和其他的基本法律; (3) to enact and amend basic laws governing criminal offences, civil affairs, the state organs and other matters;
(四)选举中华人民共和国主席、副主席; (4) to elect the President and the Vice-President of the People's Republic of China;
(五)根据中华人民共和国主席的提名,决定国务院总理的人选;根据国务院总理的提名,决定国务院副总理、国务委员、各部部长、各委员会主任、审计长、秘书长的人选; (5) to decide on the choice of the Premier of the State Council upon nomination by the President of the People's Republic of China, and on the choice of the Vice-Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers in charge of ministries or commissions, the Auditor-General and the Secretary-General of the State Council upon nomination by the Premier;
(六)选举中央军事委员会主席;根据中央军事委员会主席的提名,决定中央军事委员会其他组成人员的人选; (6) to elect the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and, upon nomination by the Chairman, to decide on the choice of all other members of the Central Military Commission;
(七)选举最高人民法院院长; (7) to elect the President of the Supreme People's Court;
(八)选举最高人民检察院检察长; (8) to elect the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate;
(九)审查和批准国民经济和社会发展计划和计划执行情况的报告; (9) to examine and approve the plan for national economic and social development and the report on its implementation;
(十)审查和批准国家的预算和预算执行情况的报告; (10) to examine and approve the state budget and the report on its implementation;
(十一)改变或者撤销全国人民代表大会常务委员会不适当的决定; (11) to alter or annul inappropriate decisions of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress;
(十二)批准省、自治区和直辖市的建置; (12) to approve the establishment of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government;
(十三)决定特别行政区的设立及其制度; (13) to decide on the establishment of special administrative regions and the systems to be instituted there;
(十四)决定战争和和平的问题; (14) to decide on questions of war and peace;
(十五)应当由最高国家权力机关行使的其他职权。 and (15) to exercise such other functions and powers as the highest organ of state power should exercise.
第六十三条 全国人民代表大会有权罢免下列人员: Article 63 The National People's Congress has the power to remove from office the following persons:
(一)中华人民共和国主席、副主席; (1) the President and the Vice-President of the People's Republic of China;
(二)国务院总理、副总理、国务委员、各部部长、各委员会主任、审计长、秘书长; (2) the Premier, Vice-Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers in charge of ministries or commissions, the Auditor-General and the Secretary-General of the State Council;
(三)中央军事委员会主席和中央军事委员会其他组成人员; (3) the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and other members of the Commission;
(四)最高人民法院院长; (4) the President of the Supreme People's Court;
(五)最高人民检察院检察长。 and (5) the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate.
第六十四条 宪法的修改,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会或者五分之一以上的全国人民代表大会代表提议,并由全国人民代表大会以全体代表的三分之二以上的多数通过。 Article 64 Amendments to the Constitution are to be proposed by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress or by more than one-fifth of the deputies to the National People's Congress and adopted by a vote of more than two-thirds of all the deputies to the Congress.
法律和其他议案由全国人民代表大会以全体代表的过半数通过。 Laws and resolutions are to be adopted by a majority vote of all the deputies to the National People's Congress.
第六十五条 全国人民代表大会常务委员会由下列人员组成: Article 65 The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is composed of the following:
委员长,副委员长若干人,秘书长,委员若干人。 the Chairman; the Vice-Chairmen; the Secretary-General; and the members.
全国人民代表大会常务委员会组成人员中,应当有适当名额的少数民族代表。 Minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation on the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
全国人民代表大会选举并有权罢免全国人民代表大会常务委员会的组成人员。 The National People's Congress elects, and has the power to recall, members of its Standing Committee.
全国人民代表大会常务委员会的组成人员不得担任国家行政机关、审判机关和检察机关的职务。 No one on the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress shall hold office in any of the administrative, judicial or procuratorial organs of the state.
第六十六条 全国人民代表大会常务委员会每届任期同全国人民代表大会每届任期相同,它行使职权到下届全国人民代表大会选出新的常务委员会为止。 Article 66 The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is elected for the same term as the National People's Congress; it shall exercise its functions and powers until a new Standing Committee is elected by the succeeding National People's Congress.
委员长、副委员长连续任职不得超过两届。 The Chairman and Vice-Chairmen of the Standing Committee shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
第六十七条 全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使下列职权: Article 67 The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress exercises the following functions and powers:
(一)解释宪法,监督宪法的实施; (1) to interpret the Constitution and supervise its enforcement;
(二)制定和修改除应当由全国人民代表大会制定的法律以外的其他法律; (2) to enact and amend laws, with the exception of those which should be enacted by the National People's Congress;
(三)在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,对全国人民代表大会制定的法律进行部分补充和修改,但是不得同该法律的基本原则相抵触; (3) to partially supplement and amend, when the National People's Congress is not in session, laws enacted by the National People's Congress provided that the basic principles of these laws are not contravened;
(四)解释法律; (4) to interpret laws;
(五)在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,审查和批准国民经济和社会发展计划、国家预算在执行过程中所必须作的部分调整方案; (5) to review and approve, when the National People's Congress is not in session, partial adjustments to the plan for national economic and social development or to the state budget that prove necessary in the course of their implementation;
(六)监督国务院、中央军事委员会、最高人民法院和最高人民检察院的工作; (6) to supervise the work of the State Council, the Central Military Commission, the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate;
(七)撤销国务院制定的同宪法、法律相抵触的行政法规、决定和命令; (7) to annul those administrative rules and regulations, decisions or orders of the State Council that contravene the Constitution or the law;
(八)撤销省、自治区、直辖市国家权力机关制定的同宪法、法律和行政法规相抵触的地方性法规和决议; (8) to annul those local regulations or decisions of the organs of state power of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government that contravene the Constitution, the law or the administrative rules and regulations;
(九)在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,根据国务院总理的提名,决定部长、委员会主任、审计长、秘书长的人选; (9) to decide, when the National People's Congress is not in session, on the choice of Ministers in charge of ministries or commissions, the Auditor-General or the Secretary-General of the State Council upon nomination by the Premier of the State Council;
(十)在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,根据中央军事委员会主席的提名,决定中央军事委员会其他组成人员的人选; (10) to decide, upon nomination by the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, on the choice of other members of the Commission, when the National People's Congress is not in session;
(十一)根据最高人民法院院长的提请,任免最高人民法院副院长、审判员、审判委员会委员和军事法院院长; (11) to appoint or remove, at the recommendation of the President of the Supreme People's Court, the Vice-Presidents and Judges of the Supreme People's Court, members of its Judicial Committee and the President of the Military Court;
(十二)根据最高人民检察院检察长的提请,任免最高人民检察院副检察长、检察员、检察委员会委员和军事检察院检察长,并且批准省、自治区、直辖市的人民检察院检察长的任免; (12) to appoint or remove, at the recommendation of the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Deputy Procurators-General and procurators of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, members of its Procuratorial Committee and the Chief Procurator of the Military Procuratorate, and to approve the appointment or removal of the chief procurators of the people's procuratorates of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government;
(十三)决定驻外全权代表的任免; (13) to decide on the appointment or recall of plenipotentiary representatives abroad;
(十四)决定同外国缔结的条约和重要协定的批准和废除; (14) to decide on the ratification or abrogation of treaties and important agreements concluded with foreign states;
(十五)规定军人和外交人员的衔级制度和其他专门衔级制度; (15) to institute systems of titles and ranks for military and diplomatic personnel and of other specific titles and ranks;
(十六)规定和决定授予国家的勋章和荣誉称号; (16) to institute state medals and titles of honour and decide on their conferment;
(十七)决定特赦; (17) to decide on the granting of special pardons;
(十八)在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,如果遇到国家遭受武装侵犯或者必须履行国际间共同防止侵略的条约的情况,决定战争状态的宣布; (18) to decide, when the National People's Congress is not in session, on the proclamation of a state of war in the event of an armed attack on the country or in fulfillment of international treaty obligations concerning common defence against aggression;
(十九)决定全国总动员或者局部动员; (19) to decide on general mobilization or partial mobilization;
(二十)决定全国或者个别省、自治区、直辖市的戒严; (20) to decide on the imposition of martial law throughout the country or in particular provinces, autonomous regions, or municipalities directly under the Central Government;
(二十一)全国人民代表大会授予的其他职权。 and (21) to exercise such other functions and powers as the National People's Congress may assign to it.
第六十八条 全国人民代表大会常务委员会委员长主持全国人民代表大会常务委员会的工作,召集全国人民代表大会常务委员会会议。副委员长、秘书长协助委员长工作。 Article 68 The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress directs the work of the Standing Committee and convenes its meetings. The Vice-Chairmen and the Secretary-General assist the Chairman in his work.
委员长、副委员长、秘书长组成委员长会议,处理全国人民代表大会常务委员会的重要日常工作。 The Chairman, the Vice-Chairmen and the Secretary-General constitute the Council of Chairmen which handles the important day-to-day work of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.

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