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中华人民共和国宪法英译本(5)

    来源:翻译界  浏览次数:3502  添加时间:2008/4/25
县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会选举并且有权罢免本级人民法院院长和本级人民检察院检察长。选出或者罢免人民检察院检察长,须报上级人民检察院检察长提请该级人民代表大会常务委员会批准。 Local people's congresses at and above the county level elect, and have the power to recall, presidents of people's courts and chief procurators of people's procuratorates at the corresponding level. The election or recall of chief procurators of people's procuratorates shall be reported to the chief procurators of the people's procuratorates at the next higher level for submission to the standing committees of the people's congresses at the corresponding level for approval.
第一百零二条 省、直辖市、设区的市的人民代表大会代表受原选举单位的监督;县、不设区的市、市辖区、乡、民族乡、镇的人民代表大会代表受选民的监督。 Article 102 Deputies to the people's congresses of provinces, municipalities directly under the Central Government and cities divided into districts are subject to supervision by the units which elected them; deputies to the people's congresses of counties, cities not divided into districts, municipal districts, townships, nationality townships, and towns are subject to supervision by their constituencies.
地方各级人民代表大会代表的选举单位和选民有权依照法律规定的程序罢免由他们选出的代表。 The electoral units and constituencies which elect deputies to local people's congresses at various levels have the power to recall the deputies according to procedures prescribed by law.
第一百零三条 县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会常务委员会由主任、副主任若干人和委员若干人组成,对本级人民代表大会负责并报告工作。 Article 103 The standing committee of a local people's congress at and above the county level is composed of a chairman, vice-chairmen and members, and is responsible and reports on its work to the people's congress at the corresponding level.
县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会选举并有权罢免本级人民代表大会常务委员会的组成人员。 A local people's congress at or above the county level elects, and has the power to recall, members of its standing committee.
县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会常务委员会的组成人员不得担任国家行政机关、审判机关和检察机关的职务。 No one on the standing committee of a local people's congress at or above the county level shall hold office in state administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs.
第一百零四条 县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会常务委员会讨论、决定本行政区域内各方面工作的重大事项;监督本级人民政府、人民法院和人民检察院的工作; Article 104 The standing committee of a local people's congress at or above the county level discusses and decides on major issues in all fields of work in its administrative area; supervises the work of the people's government, people's court and people's procuratorate at the corresponding level;
撤销本级人民政府的不适当的决定和命令;撤销下一级人民代表大会的不适当的决议;依照法律规定的权限决定国家机关工作人员的任免;在本级人民代表大会闭会期间,罢免和补选上一级人民代表大会的个别代表。 annuls inappropriate decisions and orders of the people's government at the corresponding level; annuls inappropriate resolutions of the people's congress at the next lower level; decides on the appointment or removal of functionaries of state organs within the limits of its authority as prescribed by law; and, when the people's congress at the corresponding level is not in session, recalls individual deputies to the people's congress at the next higher level and elects individual deputies to fill vacancies in that people's congress.
第一百零五条 地方各级人民政府是地方各级国家权力机关的执行机关,是地方各级国家行政机关。 Article 105 Local people's governments at various levels are the executive bodies of local organs of state power as well as the local organs of state administration at the corresponding levels.
地方各级人民政府实行省长、市长、县长、区长、乡长、镇长负责制。 Governors, mayors and heads of counties, districts, townships and towns assume overall responsibility for local people's governments at various levels.
第一百零六条 地方各级人民政府每届任期同本级人民代表大会每届任期相同。 Article 106 The term of office of local people's governments at various levels is the same as that of the people's congresses at the corresponding levels.
第一百零七条 县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业、城乡建设事业和财政、民政、公安、民族事务、司法行政、监察、计划生育等行政工作,发布决定和命令,任免、培训、考核和奖惩行政工作人员。 Article 107 Local people's governments at and above the county level, within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, conduct administrative work concerning the economy, education, science, culture, public health, physical culture, urban and rural development, finance, civil affairs, public security, nationalities affairs, judicial administration, supervision and family planning in their respective administrative areas; issue decisions and orders; appoint or remove administrative functionaries, train them, appraise their performance and reward or punish them.
乡、民族乡、镇的人民政府执行本级人民代表大会的决议和上级国家行政机关的决定和命令,管理本行政区域内的行政工作。 People's governments of townships, nationality townships, and towns execute the resolutions of the people's congresses at the corresponding levels as well as the decisions and orders of the state administrative organs at the next higher level and conduct administrative work in their respective administrative areas.
省、直辖市的人民政府决定乡、民族乡、镇的建置和区域划分。 People's governments of provinces and municipalities directly under the Central Government decide on the establishment and geographic division of townships, nationality townships, and towns.
第一百零八条 县级以上的地方各级人民政府领导所属各工作部门和下级人民政府的工作,有权改变或者撤销所属各工作部门和下级人民政府的不适当的决定。 Article 108 Local people's governments at and above the county level direct the work of their subordinate departments and of people's governments at lower levels, and have the power to alter or annul inappropriate decisions of their subordinate departments and of the people's governments at lower levels.
第一百零九条 县级以上的地方各级人民政府设立审计机关。地方各级审计机关依照法律规定独立行使审计监督权,对本级人民政府和上一级审计机关负责。 Article 109 Auditing bodies are established by local people's governments at and above the county level. Local auditing bodies at various levels independently exercise their power of supervision through auditing in accordance with the law and are responsible to the people's government at the corresponding level and to the auditing body at the next higher level.
第一百一十条 地方各级人民政府对本级人民代表大会负责并报告工作。县级以上的地方各级人民政府在本级人民代表大会闭会期间,对本级人民代表大会常务委员会负责并报告工作。 Article 110 Local people's governments at various levels are responsible and report on their work to people's congresses at the corresponding levels. Local people's governments at and above the county level are responsible and report on their work to the standing committees of the people's congresses at the corresponding levels when the congresses are not in session.
地方各级人民政府对上一级国家行政机关负责并报告工作。 Local people's governments at various levels are responsible and report on their work to the state administrative organs at the next higher level.
全国地方各级人民政府都是国务院统一领导下的国家行政机关,都服从国务院。 Local people's governments at various levels throughout the country are state administrative organs under the unified leadership of the State Council and are subordinate to it.
第一百一十一条 城市和农村按居民居住地区设立的居民委员会或者村民委员会是基层群众性自治组织。居民委员会、村民委员会的主任、副主任和委员由居民选举。居民委员会、村民委员会同基层政权的相互关系由法律规定。 Article 111 The residents committees and villagers committees established among urban and rural residents on the basis of their place of residence are mass organizations of self-management at the grass-roots level. The chairman, vice-chairmen and members of each residents or villagers committee are elected by the residents. The relationship between the residents and villagers committees and the grass-roots organs of state power is prescribed by law.
居民委员会、村民委员会设人民调解、治安保卫、公共卫生等委员会,办理本居住地区的公共事务和公益事业,调解民间纠纷,协助维护社会治安,并且向人民政府反映群众的意见、要求和提出建议。 The residents and villagers committees establish sub-committees for people's mediation, public security, public health and other matters in order to manage public affairs and social services in their areas, mediate civil disputes, help maintain public order and convey residents opinions and demands and make suggestions to the people's government.
第三章 国家机构 第六节 民族自治地方的自治机关 Section 6 The Organs of Self-Government of National Autonomous Areas
第一百一十二条 民族自治地方的自治机关是自治区、自治州、自治县的人民代表大会和人民政府。 Article 112 The organs of self-government of national autonomous areas are the people's congresses and people's governments of autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties.
第一百一十三条 自治区、自治州、自治县的人民代表大会中,除实行区域自治的民族的代表外,其他居住在本行政区域内的民族也应当有适当名额的代表。 Article 113 In the people's congress of an autonomous region, autonomous prefecture or autonomous county, in addition to the deputies of the nationality exercising regional autonomy in the administrative area, the other nationalities inhabiting the area are also entitled to appropriate representation.
自治区、自治州、自治县的人民代表大会常务委员会中应当有实行区域自治的民族的公民担任主任或者副主任。 Among the chairman and vice-chairmen of the standing committee of the people's congress of an autonomous region, autonomous prefecture or autonomous county there shall be one or more citizens of the nationality or nationalities exercising regional autonomy in the area concerned.
第一百一十四条 自治区主席、自治州州长、自治县县长由实行区域自治的民族的公民担任。 Article 114 The chairman of an autonomous region, the prefect of an autonomous prefecture or the head of an autonomous county shall be a citizen of the nationality exercising regional autonomy in the area concerned.
第一百一十五条 自治区、自治州、自治县的自治机关行使宪法第三章第五节规定的地方国家机关的职权,同时依照宪法、民族区域自治法和其他法律规定的权限行使自治权,根据本地方实际情况贯彻执行国家的法律、政策。 Article 115 The organs of self-government of autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties exercise the functions and powers of local organs of state as specified in Section 5 of Chapter III of the Constitution. At the same time, they exercise the power of autonomy within the limits of their authority as prescribed by the Constitution, the Law of the People's Republic of China on Regional National Autonomy and other laws and implement the laws and policies of the state in the light of the existing local situation.
第一百一十六条 民族自治地方的人民代表大会有权依照当地民族的政治、经济和文化的特点,制定自治条例和单行条例。 Article 116 The people's congresses of national autonomous areas have the power to enact regulations on the exercise of autonomy and other separate regulations in the light of the political, economic and cultural characteristics of the nationality or nationalities in the areas concerned.
自治区的自治条例和单行条例,报全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准后生效。自治州、自治县的自治条例和单行条例,报省或者自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会批准后生效,并报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案。 The regulations on the exercise of autonomy and other separate regulations of autonomous regions shall be submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for approval before they go into effect. Those of autonomous prefectures and counties shall be submitted to the standing committee of the people's congresses of provinces or autonomous regions for approval before they go into effect, and they shall be reported to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for the record.
第一百一十七条 民族自治地方的自治机关有管理地方财政的自治权。凡是依照国家财政体制属于民族自治地方的财政收入,都应当由民族自治地方的自治机关自主地安排使用。 Article 117 The organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas have the power of autonomy in administering the finances of their areas. All revenues accruing to the national autonomous areas under the financial system of the state shall be managed and used by the organs of self- government of those areas on their own.
第一百一十八条 民族自治地方的自治机关在国家计划的指导下,自主地安排和管理地方性的经济建设事业。 Article 118 The organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas independently arrange for and administer local economic development under the guidance of state plans.
国家在民族自治地方开发资源、建设企业的时候,应当照顾民族自治地方的利益。 In exploiting natural resources and building enterprises in the national autonomous areas, the state shall give due consideration to the interests of those areas.
第一百一十九条 民族自治地方的自治机关自主地管理本地方的教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业,保护和整理民族的文化遗产,发展和繁荣民族文化。 Article 119 The organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas independently administer educational, scientific, cultural, public health and physical culture affairs in their respective areas, protect and sift through the cultural heritage of the nationalities and work for a vigorous development of their cultures.
第一百二十条 民族自治地方的自治机关依照国家的军事制度和当地的实际需要,经国务院批准,可以组织本地方维护社会治安的公安部队。 Article 120 The organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas may, in accordance with the military system of the state and practical local needs and with the approval of the State Council, organize local public security forces for the maintenance of public order.
第一百二十一条 民族自治地方的自治机关在执行职务的时候,依照本民族自治地方自治条例的规定,使用当地通用的一种或者几种语言文字。 Article 121 In performing their functions, the organs of self-government of the national autonomous areas, in accordance with the regulations on the exercise of autonomy in those areas, employ the spoken and written language or languages in common use in the locality.
第一百二十二条 国家从财政、物资、技术等方面帮助各少数民族加速发展经济建设和文化建设事业。 Article 122 The state provides financial, material and technical assistance to the minority nationalities to accelerate their economic and cultural development.
国家帮助民族自治地方从当地民族中大量培养各级干部、各种专业人才和技术工人。 The state helps the national autonomous areas train large numbers of cadres at various levels and specialized personnel and skilled workers of various professions and trades from among the nationality or nationalities in those areas.
第三章 国家机构 第七节 人民法院和人民检察院 Section 7 The People's Courts and the People's Procuratorates
第一百二十三条 中华人民共和国人民法院是国家的审判机关。 Article 123 The people's courts of the People's Republic of China are the judicial organs of the state.
第一百二十四条 中华人民共和国设立最高人民法院、地方各级人民法院和军事法院等专门人民法院。 Article 124 The People's Republic of China establishes the Supreme People's Court and the people's courts at various local levels, military courts and other special people's courts.
最高人民法院院长每届任期同全国人民代表大会每届任期相同,连续任职不得超过两届。 The term of office of the President of the Supreme People's Court is the same as that of the National People's Congress. The President shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
人民法院的组织由法律规定。 The organization of the people's courts is prescribed by law.
第一百二十五条 人民法院审理案件,除法律规定的特别情况外,一律公开进行。被告人有权获得辩护。 Article 125 Except in special circumstances as specified by law, all cases in the people's courts are heard in public. The accused has the right to defence.
第一百二十六条 人民法院依照法律规定独立行使审判权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。 Article 126 The people's courts exercise judicial power independently, in accordance with the provisions of the law, and are not subject to interference by any administrative organ, public organization or individual.
第一百二十七条 最高人民法院是最高审判机关。 Article 127 The Supreme People's Court is the highest judicial organ.
最高人民法院监督地方各级人民法院和专门人民法院的审判工作,上级人民法院监督下级人民法院的审判工作。 The Supreme People's Court supervises the administration of justice by the people's courts at various local levels and by the special people's courts. People's courts at higher levels supervise the administration of justice by those at lower levels.
第一百二十八条 最高人民法院对全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会负责。地方各级人民法院对产生它的国家权力机关负责。 Article 128 The Supreme People's Court is responsible to the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee. Local people's courts at various levels are responsible to the organs of state power which created them.
第一百二十九条 中华人民共和国人民检察院是国家的法律监督机关。 Article 129 The people's procuratorates of the People's Republic of China are state organs for legal supervision.
第一百三十条 中华人民共和国设立最高人民检察院、地方各级人民检察院和军事检察院等专门人民检察院。 Article 130 The People's Republic of China establishes the Supreme People's Procuratorate and the people's procuratorates at various local levels, military procuratorates and other special people's procuratorates.
最高人民检察院检察长每届任期同全国人民代表大会每届任期相同,连续任职不得超过两届。 The term of office of the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate is the same as that of the National People's Congress; the Procurator-General shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
人民检察院的组织由法律规定。 The organization of the people's procuratorates is prescribed by law.
第一百三十一条 人民检察院依照法律规定独立行使检察权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。 Article 131 The people's procuratorates exercise procuratorial power independently, in accordance with the provisions of the law, and are not subject to interference by any administrative organ, public organization or individual.
第一百三十二条 最高人民检察院是最高检察机关。 Article 132 The Supreme People's Procuratorate is the highest procuratorial organ.
最高人民检察院领导地方各级人民检察院和专门人民检察院的工作,上级人民检察院领导下级人民检察院的工作。 The Supreme People's Procuratorate directs the work of the people's procuratorates at various local levels and of the special people's procuratorates. People's procuratorates at higher levels direct the work of those at lower levels.
第一百三十三条 最高人民检察院对全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会负责。地方各级人民检察院对产生它的国家权力机关和上级人民检察院负责。 Article 133 The Supreme People's Procuratorate is responsible to the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee. People's procuratorates at various local levels are responsible to the organs of state power which created them and to the people's procuratorates at higher levels.
第一百三十四条 各民族公民都有用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。人民法院和人民检察院对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译。 Article 134 Citizens of all China's nationalities have the right to use their native spoken and written languages in court proceedings. The people's courts and people's procuratorates should provide translation for any party to the court proceedings who is not familiar with the spoken or written languages commonly used in the locality.
在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,应当用当地通用的语言进行审理;起诉书、判决书、布告和其他文书应当根据实际需要使用当地通用的一种或者几种文字。 In an area where people of a minority nationality live in a concentrated community or where a number of nationalities live together, court hearings should be conducted in the language or languages commonly used in the locality; indictments, judgments, notices and other documents should be written, according to actual needs, in the language or languages commonly used in the locality.
第一百三十五条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关办理刑事案件,应当分工负责,互相配合,互相制约,以保证准确有效地执行法律。 Article 135 The people's courts, the people's procuratorates and the public security organs shall, in handling criminal cases, divide their functions, each taking responsibility for its own work, and they shall coordinate their efforts and check each other to ensure the correct and effective enforcement of the law.
第四章 国旗、国徽、首都 Chapter IV The National Flag, the National Emblem and the Capital
第一百三十六条 中华人民共和国国旗是五星红旗。 Article 136 The national flag of the People's Republic of China is a red flag with five stars.
第一百三十七条 中华人民共和国国徽,中间是五星照耀下的天安门,周围是谷穗和齿轮。 Article 137 The national emblem of the People's Republic of China consists of an image of Tian'anmen in its centre illuminated by five stars and encircled by ears of grain and a cogwheel.
第一百三十八条 中华人民共和国首都是北京。 Article 138 The capital of the People's Republic of China is Beijing.

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